J LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. $
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i UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, f
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
BY MES. M. A. HALLOCK,
AUTHOR OF "THAT SWEET STORY OF OLD," "LIFE OF PAUL," ETC.
% m COPYRIGHT ^>
PUBLISHED BY THE
AMEBIC AN TRACT SOCIETY,
, lSOvNASSAU-S'iJEEET.^BW YOKK./ |S
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 18G9, by the American
Tract Society, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States
for the Southern District of New York.
I. Jerusalem page 5
II. Josephus - 2-i
JEL Felix— Floras--- 37
IV. Agrippa — Revolution — • 52
V. Jerusalem Attacked — : - 67
VI. Vespasian — Titus — The Siege of Jotapata 91
VII. Vespasian Emperor — War- 113
VIII. The Siege of Jerusalem — Hunger 128
IX. Burning of the Temple — Famine — 149
X. The Fall of Jerusalem— Death- 175
" father!" exclaimed Jennie as she ran tow-
ards the door to meet him, "you don't know how
lonesome it has been this long, rainy day without
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
you. Charley and I have played every thing we
could thinK of, and still it keeps on raining and rain-
ing, as if it would never stop."
Mr. Sherman had just come from his place of
business, where he had been very active all the
long day. Yet he was never too tired to enter into
the feelings of his children ; so he met them with
kind words, and as soon as he had hung up his wet
overcoat, and put on the slippers which Jennie had
placed by the fire, he took his seat with an arm
around each child.
For some time their tongues ran merrily, telling
of all the ways they had taken to amuse themselves,
and how they tumbled over chairs and ran against
tables in playing blind-man's-buff.
Mr. Sherman was amused at their descriptions,
and after a hearty laugh, said, " So you have played
all this afternoon, have you ? I wonder if you can-
not mingle something useful with your recreations,
and make them more satisfactory ? How old are
you, Charlie ?"
"I was fourteen last August, father/'
4 'And you, Jennie? 77
" I, father? Why, I am going on thirteen," she
replied, straightening up to look as old as possible.
Charles laughed as he exclaimed, "Father, just
hear her! She was twelve last month; and she is
not going on thirteen any faster than I am going on
"Yes, yes, my children, you are both getting
on in life rapidly, and will soon be as old as you
will care to be. You ought to be learning as fast
as you are growing. Suppose you take the history
of some city or country, and study it, and in the
evening tell me what you have learned. Would
Von like that ? 77
"Oh yes, 77 they both said in a breath. "But
what shall it be ? 77
"Well, let me see, 77 said Mr. Sherman thought-
fully. " How T w T ouid you like the Fall of Jeru-
salem ? 77
"0 father, I should like that very much, 77 said
THE FALL OF JEBUSALEM.
Charles. " I like to read of those old cities. There
was old Troj r , which fell through the trick of the
wooden horse. I wonder if the fall of Jerusalem
would be as interesting ? 77
11 As interesting ! Certainly, my child, far more
so. Troy was no more than any other city, while
Jerusalem is identified with the church of God in all
ages. David said of it, ' Glorious things are spoken
of thee, city of God. 7 ' The Lord loveth the gates
of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob. 777
" Then it seems that God had a particular regard
for that city, 77 said Jennie.
"Yes, my child. He chose Jerusalem that his
name might be there, and commanded that a very
splendid temple should be built, in which he prom-
ised to appear and talk with his people, and be their
God and king. The whole city, with the thousands
of worshippers in its golden temple, w T as a type of
that New Jerusalem which cometh down out of
heaven from God. 77
"Did the Jews understand this? 77 asked Jennie.
"They must have understood something of this:
But when they read of the Messiah, who they knew
would ' come suddenly to his temple 7 — that he should
be called 'Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God,
The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace, 7 they
understood that he would be some great king, who
should drive away the Romans, and deliver them
from all their enemies. They expected Christ to
appear in great pomp, and make his throne in Jeru-
salem. When they read in Isaiah, ' Awake, awake!
put on thy strength, Zion, put on thy beautiful
garments, Jerusalem, the holy city ; for hence-
forth there shall no more come into thee the un cir-
cumcised and the unclean/ they thought it referred
to the time when their city should sit as a queen
among the nations. 77
"They understood, 77 said Charles, 4 4 that the
shedding of the blood of lambs in sacrifice pointed
to Christ, and that their own Scriptures spoke of
him as ' a man of sorrows, and acquainted with
grief ; 7 but they acted as if they forgot it all. 77
10 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
"Father, 77 said Jennie, "if the Jews had not
rejected Christ, would their temple have been de-
stroyed ? 77
"I do not see why it should have been,' 7 replied
Mr. Sherman; "but the Jews were so wicked, and
held so tightly to their forms and ceremonies, in-
stead of obeying God, that he was obliged to destroy
not only the city, but them also, in order to bring
in the Gospel of Christ, and show to the world that
the Jewish ceremonies were done away. 77
"I do not wonder," said Charles, "that they
held on to their old modes of worship ; for they had
been required by God himself to observe strictly
all those forms ; and they did not believe that Jesus
of Nazareth, the son of a carpenter, and brought up
in poverty, was the Messiah they were looking for ;
and I suppose they thought that God required them
to go right on as they had done with the sacrifices
that typified a coming Saviour. 77
"My son, 77 said Mr. Sherman earnestly, "their
sin lay in not believing. Their Scriptures were very
plain ; and in perfect harmony with them were
Christ's life and miracles, which were sufficient
proofs of his divinity; so they were left 'without
excuse. 7 We shall see as we go on in this history
what terrible distresses this unbelief brought upon
them, and it ought to be a warning to us all. If we
reject Christ, we too shall be excluded from that
Jerusalem above, ' which is the mother of us all ;'
of which John said, ' I saw a new heaven and a new
earth ; for the first heaven and the first earth had
passed away, and there was no more sea. And
I John saw the holy city Jerusalem coming down
from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride for her
husband.' ' And he carried me away in the spirit
to a great and high mountain, and showed me that
great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of
heaven from God, having the glory of God. And
her light was like a stone most precious, even like
a jasper stone, clear as crystal ; and had a wall
great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the
gates twelve angels.' 'And the wall was built of
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
precious stones, and the twelve gates were twelve
pearls, and the streets of the city were pure gold,
transparent as glass. And I saw no temple therein,
for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the
temple of it. 7 Nothing that was sinful was to enter
into it, only those whose names were written in the
Lamb's book of life. 77
"What a glorious description, father, 77 said
Charles. " But I never thought before of Jerusa-
lem as meaning any thing more than the city in the
land of Judea. I now understand that the church
of God in all ages, not only the old Jewish church,
but the present Christian church, and the church in
heaven, are all spoken of as Jerusalem or Zion.
And the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, you
say, implied the doing away of the Jewish church,
or, as you call it, the old dispensation. 7 '
" Yes, Charles ; and that was breaking the shell,
that the substance might be seen. The Jews, not
believing in Christ, would have gone on till this
time, if they could, with their temple worship. And
J EE U SAL EM.
I think you will learn, as we look farther, that the
destruction of Jerusalem was an absolute necessity,
in order to clear the way for the glorious recogni-
tion of Christ, who had now come, and in whom
centred all those symbols which were ever after
useless. The Old Testament was full of predictions
and types of Christ's coming, and dying, and reign-
ing. All prophecy pointed to him. He wtls the
world's great expectation."
"Then," said Charles, "if the Jews had been
allowed to go on with their sacrifices, they would
have been pointing the wrong way to Christ."
"Yes, my son, in the fulness of time Christ
came; after which, Christians looked back to him
as having already died."
" How is it with the Jews of the present time ?"
asked Jennie. " Do they still look for a Messiah ?"
" Certainly, they have this article in their creed :
' I believe with a perfect faith in the advent of the
Messiah ; and though he should tarry, yet I will
patiently wait for him every day till he come. 7 "
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
"Strange," said Jennie, "very strange that they
cannot see. Bnt I suppose it would n't be very
pleasant for them to feel that they had killed their
own Messiah. But where, father, do the Jews ex-
pect him to live? They have no country now of
"They expect to be gathered back into their
own land again ; and there are some passages in
the Bible that seem to promise it," said Mr. Sher-
"Father," said Charles, "the Bible does not
give us an account of the destruction of Jerusa-
"No, Charles; but we have a very particular
account of it in the writings of Josephus who was a
Jew, and a priest • and he is considered a reliable
historian. We may naturally conclude that he
would not wish to write any thing untrue against
his own people. His works are the very ones for
you to consult in this matter."
" I think," said Charles, " there is great interest
in those places where Christ walked, and taught,
and suffered. 77
" Father/ 7 said Jennie. "I wish you would tell
us when Jerusalem was founded, who lived there
before the Jews came, and all you know about it."
"Yes, daughter, I think it would be "well to look
back over the ground a little/ 7 replied Mr. Sher-
man. "The first mention we find made of the
place, was about two thousand years before Christ,
when Melchizedek, the king of Salem, who was a
type of the Saviour, came out and blessed Abra-
"About forty years afterwards, Abraham was
commanded to take his son Isaac, and go to the
land of Moriah, and there offer him a sacrifice to
God. In the book of Chronicles you will see that
Mount Moriah was where Solomon 7 s temple was
afterwards built, 2 Chron. 3:1; and Abraham 7 s offer-
ing was to typify that greater Sacrifice which was
to be offered in after ages at Jerusalem.
"The Ammonites probably founded the city,
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
but there was then no great, interest attached, to the
place, which was afterwards to be called, ' the per-
fection of beauty, the joy of the whole earth. ? It
was a secluded place on a rocky ridge, with deep
valleys separating it from other hills around it,
especially on the east and south. Thus it was very
strongly fortified by nature, and was also probably
a walled city even at this early period. About
four hundred and twenty or thirty years after this,
we find it the royal city of the Jebusites, and called
Jebus. During most of these years the Jews had
been in bondage in Egypt ; but now they had come
back and were commanded to take the whole coun-
try by the sword. They took Jericho, and most of
the other places, and attacked Jebus. They tried
on one side, then on another, but it was like run-
ning their heads against solid rocks ; the strong
citadel stood as quietly as if no attack had been
made. In Joshua 15 :G3, we read, 'As for the Jeb-
usites, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the children of
Judah could not drive them out. 5
" Adonizedek, the king of Jebus, made Joshua
a great deal of trouble. He called together at one
time several neighboring kings, and attacked the
children of Israel ; but in the battle he was killed.
Still Joshua could not get into the strongest part of
the city, and the Jebusites held it, and lived there
in the land of Judea about four hundred years
4 * That is very strange, ?? said Charles. "Why
didn't Joshua put all his forces together, and take
it any way f 7
"You don't know, my son, what a strong place
it was. It was almost or quite equal to Gibral-
tar; and the Jebusites felt very secure, I assure
" 1 At length David became king of Israel. He
was a great warrior, never losing a battle. Jeru-
salem, he said, must be taken, and the Jebusites
dispossessed. They defied him, and said he could
not take their city ; but he went about it with de-
termination, and God helped him. He knew the
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
danger of those who should attack it : and calling
his brave men together, he told them if any one
would volunteer to go up first, and smite the Jebu-
sites, he should be chief and captain in his army.
Joab his nephew led the attack, and succeeded. So
David took the stronghold, and called it 'The City
of David. 7
"David immediately went to work to beautify
and enlarge the place : he built strong walls, and
a splendid palace for himself. Then he brought in
the ark of the Lord with great rejoicings, dancing
before it with all his might, and presented before it
peace-offerings. These were the first acts towards
constituting Jerusalem the Holy City."
"Didn't he want to build a temple, father,*'
asked Jennie, "in which to place the ark?"
" Yes: but he was forbidden, because he was
such a man of war ; but he collected vast stores of
gold and silver, besides very great quantities of
brass, iron, and timber, all of which, and the design,
or plan of the house, he left with Solomon.
" In the fourth year of his reign Solomon com-
menced the house. As the hill on which it was to
stand was not large enough, Solomon had a wall
built up from the valley, and then filled in between
this wall and the hill, thus enlarging it. Josephus
says that persons could scarcely look from this ele-
vation to the ground below without becoming dizzy.
At the entrance of one of the courts of the temple,
on this high elevation, Solomon built a beautiful
gate of bright Corinthian brass, the most precious
metal then known, which was seventy-five feet high.
When that beautiful gate and the temple itself, all
of white marble edged with gold, stood in the bright
sunshine, they were so dazzling that a person could
scarcely look upon them.
" Solomon was seven years in building the tem-
ple, though he employed one hundred and eighty-
three thousand and six hundred men upon it. When
done, it was the most wonderful structure ever made.
After many years of great prosperity, Solomon
allowed idol worship in the nation, and built idol
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
temples, for which sin God took away from his son
Behoboam a large part of his kingdom; and as
kings and people went on sinning, G-od, after long
forbearance, gave np the Jews into the hands of
the Babylonians, who destroyed the temple, and
carried the nation into captivity."
"0 father, what a pity! How long had the
temple stood ?" asked Jennie.
V A little more than fonr hundred years; and
its destruction was five hundred and eighty-eight
years before Christ."
11 How long did it lie in ruins ?" asked Charles.
"Fifty-two years. Zerubbabel and upwards of
forty-two thousand Jews, besides their servants,
were sent back by Cyrus, the king of Persia, to
their own land, to build again the temple of God.
He also restored to them all the vessels of gold and
silver, five thousand and four hundred pieces, Ezra
1:11, which had been taken away from Jerusalem.
Isaiah, chapter 45, foretold this one hundred and
twenty years before the temple was destroyed ; and
it is probable that Cyrus had read the prediction.
Josephus says that 'God stirred up the mind of
Cyrus, and made him write this throughout all Asia :
Thus saith the king: since God Almighty hath ap-
pointed me to be king of the habitable earth, I
believe he is the God whom the nations of the Isra-
elites worship ; for indeed he foretold my name by
the prophets, and that I should build him a house
at Jerusalem, in the country of Judea. 7
"It took a long time to rebuild the temple ; and
when it was done it had no ark, no mercy-seat, no
sacred fire, and God did not appear in this as he
had in the first."
" Please tell us something about the ark, 77 said
"It was like a box, my daughter, more than a
yard long, but not quite as broad or high, and was
covered with pure gold. The mercy-seat, or cover
of the ark, was solid gold. Over it, standing on
each side, were two golden figures called cherubim ;
and in it was a golden pot of manna, Aaron's rod
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
that budded and "blossomed and bore fruit, and
those tables of stone upon which God wrote with
his finger the ten commandments.
"When Zerubbabel's temple had stood about
five hundred years, it became very much dilapi-
dated ; and Herod the Great, who then had charge
of Juclea, took in hand the repairing and rebuilding
of it. He hoped to gain the favor of the Jews, and
also to get himself a great name."
''How long before Christ was the temple com-
menced asked Jennie.
" Seventeen years, daughter; and it was forty-
six years in rebuilding."
"Father, was that the Herod that tried to kill
Christ in Bethlehem? 77 asked Jennie.
"Yes, the very one. It would seem that he
was sent to cleanse and rebuild the temple for the
reception of the Saviour; but Gocl did not allow
him to lay his hand upon his Son for harm. Herod
soon after died, abhorred by the people, and an
angel was sent, you remember, to Egypt to an-
nounce his death to Joseph and Mary, that they
might return home."
After this talk, Mr. Sherman had a quiet hour
in which to read his papers ; but the rain pattered
so steadily upon the window panes, and the long
branches of the old elm swung so monotonously
against the roof, that he dropped to sleep and knew
nothing more till his children came in to call him to
At the table Mr. Sherman said, " Charles, I
would like to have you find out, and tell me in our
next talk, something about our historian Josephus,
that we may see what advantages he had for know-
ing the facts which he relates. 77
THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
When they met again in the parlor to talk
together, the children's faces showed that they had
ideas which they wished to communicate.
"Well, Charlie, what have you learned? Can
you tell me when, and where, Josephus was born?' 7
asked Mr. Sherman, as he took his seat by the
" Oh, yes, father; I have found out that he was
born in Jerusalem, only about seven years after
Christ was crucified. His father, Matthias, was a
"What about his mother, Jennie? 7 ' asked Mr.
" I read that she belonged to a royal family, the
Asmonaeans; and I suppose she was as proud and
haughty as her husband. They were among the first
families of the nation, and probably had a splendid
house, and took a great deal of pains with their lit-
tle boy. 77
"Very likely; but what would they teach him,
as he grew up, about Christ? 77 asked Mr. Sherman.
"I can tell, father, 77 said Charles. " If Matthias
did help in condemning Christ, he would tell Jose-
phus that Jesus was an impostor, and that the Sav-
iour was still to come ; and that they must still offer
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
bulls, goats, sheep, and doves for their sins. I sup-
pose that, as Josephus was to be trained up for a
priest, his father took him every clay to the temple
where Christ had so lately been ; and there, in the
court, as they called it, before the temple, he saw
innocent lambs killed, and their blood sprinkled on
the people. 77
" What did they mean by sprinkling the blood
upon the people?" asked Jennie.
" It meant, my child, that God could not forgive
sin without blood being shed to atone for it. The
lamb meant or represented Christ, who is called ' the
Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world.'
When we believe on him, his blood, or death, can-
cels all our sins, and we are forgiven for his sake. 77
"So I suppose,' 7 said Charles, 11 that Matthias
taught Josephus to observe all the old ceremonial
laws that are found in the Old Testament, and to
despise those who believed in Christ. I think he
must have heard a great deal about Christ ; for Ste-
phen preached in Jerusalem, and was stoned to
death, after Josephus was old enough to understand
about these things.' 7
"Very likely/ 7 replied Mr. Sherman; "but he
may not have been much interested in such mat-
"I know what Josephus was interested in/ 7 said
Jennie ; " it was his studies ; and he became so learned
that by the time he was fourteen years old his fame
went all over Jerusalem. And, father, sometimes
those old learned Jewish doctors of the law came to
him to ask his opinion about matters which they did
not understand. , I think he loved to study better
than Charlie does. 77
"Or any girl I ever heard of/ 7 replied Charles,
a little touched.
"Girls and boys may both accomplish a great
deal by making a little effort/ 7 replied Mr. Sher-
man ; "and I should be glad to have you both do
your best in your studies. Josephus had a good
work to do in the world, and his education prepared
him for it. God may have something for my chil-
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
dren to do which will require a cultivated intellect.
So fit yourselves to fill any station in life. 77
" Father/ 7 asked Jennie, " what school did Jose-
phus attend? or where was he educated? 77
"I really do not know T , daughter; but I have
read of one in Jerusalem where Paul was educated,
the school of Gamaliel, who was President of the
Sanhedrim — the Jewish Senate — thirty-two years.
Very likely it was there that Josephus was educa-
" Father, 77 said Charles, "when Josephus was
about sixteen he noticed that all men were not Phar-
isees, as his father was ; and being a very inquisitive
boy, he began to question who was right. There
was a sect called Sadducees, who did not believe
that men will live again after death, and said there
were neither angels nor spirits. Josephus studied
on that some time, but concluded his father 7 s belief
"He afterwards heard of a sect called the Essenes.
They were a very peculiar people, living in caves
and by-places, denying themselves nearly all the
comforts of life, not even allowing themselves the
society of their mothers and sisters, except on the
Sabbath, when they met and ate their coarse hard
fare together. Josephus went and lived with them
for some time, but concluded their religion was not
the right one.' 7
"And I read, 77 said Jennie, "of a man by the
name of Bannus, who lived in the desert, and was
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
dressed with the bark of trees, and ate what he
could find in the woods. He was- a very religious
man, and preached to all who would hear him. Jo-
sephus went to see him, and for a long time remained
there under his instruction. 77
"How long was Josephus engaged in testing
these different sects ?"
" About four years/ 7 replied Charles ; " and then
he went home, and concluded to be a Pharisee like
his father. 7 *
"Did you find that Josephus wrote any thing
about Christ? 77 asked Mr. Sherman.
"Yes, father, 77 said Charles; "yet it is not as
much as I should suppose he would have said. I
will read it to you : ' Now there was about this time
Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man,
for he was a doer of wonderful works — a teacher of
such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He
drew over to him both many of the Jews and many
of the Gentiles. He was (the) Christ ; and when
Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among
us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved
him at the first did not forsake him ; for he appeared
alive to them again the third day, as the divine
prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other
wonderful things concerning him ; and the tribe of
Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at
this day. 7 Isn't that wonderful, father? If Jose-
ph us should come upon the earth now, he would
think the ' tribe 7 of Christians had greatly increased ;
and he would be astonished, too, a.t all that has been
done and is now doing in the cause of Christ. 77
"Indeed he would, 7 ' replied Mr. Sherman. "But
Josephus 7 testimony concerning the Saviour is w T orth
a great deal ; for you must remember he lived at a
time when Christ 7 s acts and words were fresh in the
minds of the people, and had he written what was
false, it would have been detected at once. Besides,
he was an active priest, and had every opportunity
of hearing a great deal said about Christ by the very
persons who had seen him in Jerusalem, had heard
him talk, and had perhaps seen him die. He heard
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
the opinions of friends and enemies ; and with all
these opportunities to learn the truth, he makes up
his mind that Jesus was the Christ, and that he rose
from the dead on the third day, as our own Bible
teaches us. 77
''Father, if Joseph us believed that, why did he
go on at the temple in the old way, offering sacrifi-
ces for sin, as if the Saviour had not come ?"
" I suspect, Charles, that Josephus wrote his his-
tory after the destruction of Jerusalem. You will
find, as you pursue the subject, that he was carried
off to Rome ; and it is probable that most of his his-
tory was written there. ??
"Josephus visited Rome, 77 said Charles, "when
he was about twenty-six years old, to defend some
of his friends. He and other priests at the temple
often had serious difficulties ; at one time it resulted
in quite a hard battle. At length this reached the
ears of Felix the governor, who tried and condemned
some of them, and sent them to Rome to be judged
by Caesar. They happened to be those in whom
Josephus felt a particular interest; and he, in his
zeal, took a ship and went on after them. It was a
large ship, and had on board no less than six hun-
dred persons as it started off over 'the great sea, 7
as the Mediterranean was then called. I suppose
the people on board with Josephus were so glad to
be on their way to their homes, or to visit friends, or
to prosecute their business, that they borrowed no
trouble about the winds and the waves, but sailed
on joyfully many days. 77
"Did those ships sail under the protection of
heathen gods ? 77 asked Mr. Sherman.
"I think some of them did, 7 ' said Charles. "You
know the ship Paul sailed in had the sign of Castor
and Pollux. Were they heathen gods, father? 77
"Yes ; they were supposed to be the twin sons
of Jupiter, and to ^preside over the destiny of sail-
ors, 77 replied Mr. Sherman.
"Well, father, soon after Josephus 7 vessel en-
tered the Adriatic waters, they found the winds
rising and the waves swelling, and the vessel began
34 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
pitching and rolltng. Some thought that the winds
would soon subside ; but they waited and watched
in vain ; for instead of the sea becoming calmer, it
only grew worse. All night they were in great
fear ; and when morning came there was no sun-
nothing but clouds, rain, and wind. The distress
on board increased, and the hope of being saved was
nearly gone. I suppose Josephus did what he could
to comfort the rest, but he was in great fear himself ;
and when he saw the timbers of the ship straining,
and threatening to part and let them down into the
boiling waves, he could say nothing encouraging to
the distressed creatures who were imploring help.
Another day was drawing to a close, and night was
setting in again with fearful sounds, and with a dark-
ness that could almost be felt. I think, father, that
then friends clasped each other in their arms and
clung together tightly, that they might die together.
At length there came, oh, such a heart-rending sound !
•the timbers parted, the vessel filled, and amid the
screams of those six hundred horrified souls it went
down into the sea. The waves were covered with
human beings struggling for life. Some clung to
each other, others to boards or whatever floated
from the ship. But the struggle with most was
short, and they sank here and there and all around.
Josephus, with about eighty strong men, kept swim-
ming and catching hold of whatever they could reach
36 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
all flight. But about daylight, when they were
nearly exhausted, a ship hove in sight. How glad
they were to see it, and yet so afraid it would not
come that way ; but it did come, and all these poor
exhausted men were picked up and cared for. A
few days' sailing after this brought them to Puteoli,
in Italy, about eight miles from Naples, and not a
great way from Rome.
"While Josephus was there, 77 said Charles, "he
was introduced to a play-actor, who was acquainted
with* Poppea, Caesar's wife ; and the play-actor
brought Josephus to Poppea, who treated him kind-
ly, released the priests, and made him a great many
presents, such as queens alone have to give ; and
he and the priests returned to Jerusalem. 7 '
" Father, " said Charles, "I would like to know m
how long the Romans had had possession of Judea.
The country seems to have had a great deal of trou-
ble under the Roman rulers.' 7
38 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
" Pompey took it sixty-three years before Christ,"
replied Mr. Sherman, ''and the poor Jews never
regained their liberty. Caesar, who lived in Eome,
sent out such men as Herod, Pilate, and Agrippa to
rule Judea, but most of these rulers were hard-
hearted and cruel men."
"Here is something about Felix," said Charles.
"He made his home in the magnificent city of Caesa-
rea, which was sixty miles northwest of Jerusalem,
on the Mediterranean sea. There he lived in great
pomp, and all the Jews who were accused of any
thing wrong, whether they were guilty or not, were
taken to him to be judged."
% " Christ," said Mr. Sherman, "was crucified about
twenty-three years before Felix was appointed gov-
ernor. After he arrived in Judea he must have
learned a great deal about the Christian religion."'
"Felix was a very wicked man," said Charles,
"and would do almost any thing for money."
"Yes," said Mr. Sherman, "he had great faults.
He persuaded Drusilla, the daughter of Herod, to
leave her husband and marry him ; and they were
living together when Paul was carried from Jerusa-
lem to him one night. Felix put Paul in prison and
kept him there two years. But one day Felix and
Brasilia thought they would hear what Paul had to
say in favor of the new religion which he advocated ;
so the prisoner with the heavy chain upon his arm,
was brought in and told that he might speak. Paul
was bold and spoke the truth, and pressed it home
so strongly that Felix trembled; and I think the
guilty Jewess Drusilla wished she had not put her-
self in the' prisoner's presence. Felix sent him back
to prison, hoping money would be given for his
"Father," said Jennie, "I think Josephus must
have seen Paul ; for it is probable that he was still
lying at Caesar ea in prison when Josephus came
back from Rome."
"Very possible, my daughter; and if he did not
hear and see him, he must have heard of him."
"Just about the time that Josephus returned,"
40 THE FALL OP JERUSALEM.
said Charles, " they were having great trouble in
Caesarea. -The Jews said, as Herod who built the.
city was a Jew, the place belonged to them, and
they ought to have more privileges there than the
foreigners. The Gentiles, who were often called
Grecians, insisted that the beautiful temples and
statues there were never designed for the Jews ; and
this dispute finally resulted in hard fights, and then
Felix sent the Eoman soldiers, who killed the Jews
till the streets of the city ran with blood. Their
property was taken, and many of their first men
were whipped and thrown into prison. ' The city
was finally given to their enemies."
"Did Felix rule long, Charles?"
"About ten years, I think," replied Charles.
"He became so oppressive that Caesar sent for him
to return to Rome ; and we learn from the Bible that
when he went off, he left Paul lying in prison with-
out any just cause."
"Many of the Jews followed Felix," said Mr.
Sherman, "and accused him before Caesar, and had
it not been for the interference of his brother, he
would have been condemned to suffer death. The
country was in such a bad and restless state, that
Josephus felt that ruin was ahead unless something
could be done to quiet the people, who seemed de-
termined to rise and throw off the Eoman yoke. He
assured them that it would be madness for them to
think of fighting the whole Roman force ; 7 t would be
certain defeat, and destruction to themselves and
their- families. Festus was the next ruler, but he
did very little except to drive out the robbers.
Albinus succeeded him, but was so cruel, that he
was soon recalled.
"At length it was announced that a new gov-
ernor had arrived, whose name was Floras. The
people were delighted, and were ready to become
quiet and obedient citizens, if their rights could be
"Josephus was glad to see this disposition, and
hoped the war-cloud had passed away. He and
others visited Floras, who met them with kindness,
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
and promised that the rights of all should be re-
spected. But it was not long before the nation was
astonished to hear of his wickedness. Whole cities
were nearly ruined by his exactions, and hundreds
of the best citizens moved away to other countries
to avoid the calamities that were hanging over them."
"Couldn't they have accused him before Csesar,
and been heard?" asked Charles.
4 'None dared clo it, my son, lest Floras should
hear of it and take their lives. God was forsaking
these Jews. They had stoned the prophets, cruci-
fied their Saviour, and persecuted the Christians,
and now they were suffering great evils."'
"What occurred next?" asked Charles.
"The feast of unleavened bread was about to be
observed,' 7 said Mr. Sherman, "and every man was
required to be in Jerusalem. This was a feast in
commemoration of the departure of the children of
Israel out of Egypt ; and God had enjoined upon the
people the necessity of remembering the great deliv-
erance he had wrought for them. A lamb must be
carried for each family, and there killed and eaten.
The country was densely populated, and at some of
these feasts multitudes were present. At this time
Jerusalem was full, and wherever men met they
were discussing the conduct of Floras. But they
did it in low and confidential tones, while their faces
looked earnest and anxious. Some however were
more bold and spoke out strongly for war and death,
rather than bear such oppression and servitude.
Roman soldiers were stationed in all parts of the
city, and the tower of Antonia, near the temple, was
full of them ; and should they see the least move
towards an outbreak, they would be down upon the
unarmed people at once.
"After a day or two the Jews were surprised to
hear that Cestius, the president of all Syria, and
Floras had arrived in Jerusalem. Then there was
great excitement, and every mouth seemed unstopped.
They crowded upon the president with complaints
against Floras ; and begged of him, if he had any
compassion upon the nation, to remove their wicked
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
ruler. They told him with tears that they had
been robbed, their friends murdered, and their
rights taken from them, till death was to be pre-
ferred to such a life. Cestius was sorry for the peo-
ple, and told them th$t in future they should be pro-
tected. He then urged them to be obedient and
peaceable citizens, and not allow any outbreaks,
and assured them that all should be well.
" When Cestius went back to Antioch, Florus
rode with him, and made him believe that the people
were misinformed, that they were excited, and that
while he had been kind to them, they were disposed
for war and rebellion. And Cestius concluded that
Florus was a pretty good man after all."
" But we shall be obliged to consider him a bad
man, 77 said Charles.
"Sometimes God uses just such men to. punish
people,' 7 replied Jennie.
" After that/' 7 said her father, "Florus sent men
to Jerusalem to take seventeen talents, (about twen-
ty-five thousand dollars,) out of the sacred treasury,
pretending that Cassar wanted them. The Jews of
course were very much outraged to think he would
presume to touch their sacred treasures, and rose in
a mass to oppose it. Floras thought it a good time
to fight, and taking a large body of cavalry and foot-
men marched upon Jerusalem.
''The Jews heard he wtls coming, but thought
the best way to obtain favor was to march out like
friends and escort him into the city. But Floras
and his troops rode in among them, and trod them
clown, till the poor creatures in a terrible fright got
back into the city as soon as possible, and spent the
night in great fear.
" The next day Floras set his tribunal before the
palace ; and taking his seat upon it called before
him the high priests, and the most eminent men
of the city, and demanded that they deliver up to
him all those who had reproached him, and threat-
ened punishment upon them if they did not obey his
"These priests and others told Floras that the
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
large body of the people were disposed for peace,
and that they could not know who had spoken amiss ;
and asked that he would forgive them, and not by an
attempt to punish a few. create great disorder in the
"Floras was provoked, and ordered his soldiers
to go and plunder the upper market-place, and kill
the people they found. This was a densely popu-
lated part of Jerusalem, and the soldiers not only
did what they were commanded, but much more ;
murdering women and children, and causing many
quiet people to be whipped and crucified. All day
the soldiers butchered them, and at night three
thousand people lay dead.
"The next clay there was a great rush from other
parts of the city to see what had been done, and
the sight was so dreadful that they all began to weep
in a loud voice, and reproach Floras. But the
priests rent their clothes and begged them to stop,
or Floras would be provoked to kill them also."
"What a terrible condition the country was in,"
"Yes," said Mr. Sherman, "Every thing seemed
tending to its destruction — Josephus w % as obliged to
be very careful what he did and said, for his life also
was in danger. Floras was not yet satisfied with
the blood he had shed ; and calling the principal men
together, he told them that peace should be restored
on condition that they and the people should go out
and escort in a company of soldiers who were on
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
their way to the city. He then sent word to these
troops to ride over them and destroy the Jews.
"To satisfy him, and to save their own lives, they
went out, but it was very unwillingly however, for
they felt that it would do no good. At length the
Roman soldiers came dashing forward with their
brass helmets and bright spears glistening in the sun.
The poor submissive Jews took a very humble pos-
ture as they had been commanded, but the haughty
Romans drew their swords and rode in among them
and killed many. The Jews in their haste to get
back into the city ran over each other in narrow
places, till hundreds of them lay dead and dying on
the ground. Those who reached the city, and
others there,* hurried upon the roofs of the houses
and fought, throwing darts and stones among the
Romans, who were trying to reach the temple to
rob it of its gold. Floras and his troops were
driven back, and finally left the city ; and the peo-
ple were glad enough to get him out of their sight.
"Bernice, the sister of Agrippa was in Jerusa-
lem about this time, and was very much displeased
at what the Roman soldiers were doing. She sent
the masters of her horse and her guards to Floras
and begged him to leave off those slaughters. But
he had no regard to her requests. She then sent
again, beseeching him to spare the people ; but it
only exasperated the soldiers. They tormented
those they caught before her eyes, and she herself
was obliged to fly to the palace for protection, where
she remained all night. She was then in Jerusalem
performing a vow she had made to Grod ; and she
went before Floras as he sat upon his tribunal, and
stood barefoot, and besought him to spare the Jews.
But it did no good."
11 Christ," said Jennie, "wept over Jerusalem,
for he saw how much misery was shortly to come
Mr. Sherman then took the Bible and read from
the twenty-eighth chapter of Deuteronomy: "And
it shall come to pass, if thou shalt hearken diligently
unto the voice of the Lord thy God, to do all his
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
commandments which I command thee this day, that
the Lord thy God will set thee on high above all
nations of the earth. The Lord shall canse thine
enemies that rise up against thee to be smitten be-
fore thy face ; they shall come out against thee one-
way, and flee before thee seven ways. But it shall
come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice
of the Lord thy God, to observe to do all his com-
mandments and his statutes which I command thee
this day, that all these curses shall come upon thee
and overtake thee : Cursed shalt thou be in the
city, and cursed shalt thou be in the field ; cursed
shalt thou be when thou comest in, and cursed shalt
thou be when thou goest out. The Lord shall cause
thee to be smitten before thine enemies ; thou shalt
go out one way against them, and flee seven ways
before them, and shalt be removed into all the king-
doms of the earth. And thy carcass shall be meat
unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of
the earth, and no man shall fra} r them away. The
Lord shall bring a nation against thee from far, from
the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth:
a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand ; a
nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard
the person of the old, nor show favor to the young."
"Father/ 7 said Charles, " could n't the Jews talk
and understand the language of the Eomans ? 77
"No, my son; neither could the Romans under-
stand the Jews, except through interpreters. 77
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
^Agrippa — Revolution.
Charles was becoming very much interested in
the oppression the Jews were under, and read with
interest of the hopes which were excited by the
arrival in the country of Agrippa, the brother of
Bernice, who was of Jewish descent.
" What do you know of him ? ;; asked Mr. Sher-
man, as they seated themselves one evening in the
"I know," said Charles, 11 that he was the son
of that Herod Agrippa who, seated on his throne to
make an oration to the people, received divine hon-
ors, and was eaten of worms, and died. At that
time this Agrippa was only seventeen years old,
and was living at Rome with Claudius the empe-
ror. Claudius thought of giving him at once all his
father's territory in Judea, but concluded that he
was too young, and kept him four years longer.
About that time his uncle, king of Chalcis, died •
and Agrippa soon after came into large possessions
in Judea, and was a man of extended influence.
" When Festus first arrived in Caesarea, Agrippa
and his sister went up to salute him. While they
were enjoying the hospitality of the ruler, and prob-
ably wishing amusement, Paul was brought in and
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
allowed to speak for himself. The apostle said he
was happy to speak before King Agrippa, because
he knew him to be familiar with all customs and
questions among the Jews. At the end of his very
eloquent speech, which is in the twenty-sixth chap-
ter of Acts, Paul said, ' King Agrippa, believest
thou the prophets ? I know that thou believest. 7
Then Agrippa said unto Paul, ' Almost thou per-
suadest me to be a Christian. 7 77
"Father, 77 asked Jennie, "was he ever a Chris-
tian ? 77
"I think not, 77 replied Mr. Sherman. "He put
it off, like many other people ; and after the destruc-
tion of Jerusalem, he and his sister went to Rome,
where he died, at the age of seventy.
"While the troubles which we have been rela-
ting were occurring in Jerusalem, Agrippa had been
down in Egypt; and now he had but just returned,
and was stopping a short time in a city near. Ber-
nice, in the mean time, had despaired of moving
Floras to be more merciful, and wishing to benefit
the Jews, had written to Cestius, as had many of
the principal men of Jerusalem, asking his interfe-
rence. Cestius felt it his duty to do something ;
and calling "Neopolanitus, one of his tribunes, or-
dered him to go down and investigate the charges.
It so happened that the day he arrived at the place
where King Agrippa was stopping, several of the
principal men of Jerusalem were there to congratu-
late the king on his safe return, and lay before him
"Agrippa was very indignant towards Floras
when he learned how much. evil he had clone in his
absence, and went with Neopolanitus to Jerusalem.
When the Jews heard that Agrippa, who, being
brought up a Jew, knew how to sympathize with
them, was coming, they were overjoyed, and hun-
dreds of the first men of the city went out to meet
"They had not gone far before the widows of
those who had been killed came running, weeping
and lamenting with loud voices. This touched the
THE EALE OF JEEU SALEM.
hearts of the men, who also wept aloud. Agrippa
and Neopolanitus were greatly moved at the sight
of this sorrow, and to hear these people beg for
deliverance from their oppressors. Agrippa and
Neopolanitus were taken over to the upper market-
place and shown the desolations there, and then the
Jews besought Neopolanitus to take only one ser-
vant and go all over the city, and see if the people
were not disposed to be quiet, and obedient to all
their rulers except Floras. This he did, and ex-
pressed himself pleased with what he saw of their
conduct. After performing such worship at the
temple as he was allowed to do, he returned to
"Agrippa knew, from what he saw and heard,
that the people had been greatly abused ; and gath-
ering them into the temple, gave them a long talk,
in which he praised them for the good disposition
they had manifested. Some asked if they might not
send an ambassador to Rome, to complain of Florus
to the emperor. Agrippa replied, 4 That would be
a dangerous thing for you to do. It might work
to your own hurt. 7
"He then placed his sister Bernice where she
could be seen, and commenced by saying that the
Romans were a powerful nation : they had con-
quered nearly every people on the globe ; all over
Europe and Asia they had carried their arms, and
had subdued many nations, who were better able to
maintain their independence than the Jews. He
tried to show them that it was madness for them,
without a fleet or arms or money, to think of going
to war. He said, ' Do you depend upon the walls
of your city ? Did not Pompey the Roman general
destroy them years ago? If you could not keep
your liberty when you had it, how do you expect
to regain it when you are slaves? You cannot
depend upon God, for he will not hear you on
account of your sins. He has forsaken you ; and
now, if you have any pity upon your wives and chil-
dren, keep the peace. ' Agrippa talked in this way
an hour or two, and he and Bernice both wept."
THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
"Probably some of these same Jews/ 7 said Mr.
Sherman, "heard Christ when he said, 'How often
would I have gathered you, as a hen gathereth her
chickens under her wdngs, and ye would not. 7 Poor
Jews ! they did not know when good came, and now
they were left to their doom. Before Agrippa left
the city, he told them that they must build up some
of the places which had been broken clown, and pay
their tribute to Caesar, and thus prevent complaints.
For a long time they had objected to paying taxes
to the Romans ; even when Christ was with them
they asked him if it w r ere lawful to pay tribute to
"He taught them by example to do it," said
Jennie. "He once wrought a miracle to get the
"Yes, 77 said Mr. Sherman, "Christ taught them
to obey their rulers. These Jews accepted the ad-
vice of Agrippa, and paid up all that was due, and
the war spirit subsided for a while. 77
Charles said, "The difficulty was, there were
two parties in Jerusalem. One was for resisting
and fighting the Eomans ; and the other, with Jose-
phus at its head, was for peace. Some suspected he
was for betraying his nation more completely into
the hands of the Eomans ; and their anger burnt so
fiercely, that for several days he lay secreted in the
temple. Eleazer, who was the ruler of the temple,
prevailed upon the priests not to offer any more
sacrifices for foreigners, not even for Caesar, as they
had usually done. The chief men in the city saw
what that would lead to, and begged of the people to
do differently; but as they persisted in their course,
which was creating great dissatisfaction, word was
sent to Agrippa and also to Florus that more troops
were necessary in order to keep the people quiet,"
"Agrippa was sorry," said Mr. Sherman, "to
hear of this necessity ; he could not bear to destroy
any part of the city, especially the beautiful temple.
Yet as he was placed in his office by the Romans,
he felt that he must keep the Jews in subjection.
He gave Philip, one of his generals, three thousand
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
men, and ordered him to Jerusalem. But Florus
paid no attention to the request for troops, for he
had rather have disturbance than not.
"This asking for an increase of the army had a
very different effect from what was expected. The
Jews were aroused, and with Eleazer at their head,
armed themselves, and seized upon the temple and
the city surrounding it. But the Roman soldiers,
with another party of the Jews, kept possession of
the rest of the city, and for several days these par-
ties fought each other.
"Hundreds of robbers, who were prowling
around, came in and joined the army at the temple,
and with their short swords, which they carried
concealed, stabbed all who opposed them. When
Philip with his army arrived, the peace party ex-
pected that Eleazer and his men would be routed ;
but they were disappointed, for they rushed furi-
ously down, and drove the Romans back. They set
fire to the beautiful house of Ananias the high priest,
and the flames had hardly burst forth there before
dark clouds of smoke began to rise from the splen-
did palace of Agrippa and Bernice. They also
applied the torch to the buildings where their pub-
lic papers were kept, and all were soon reduced to
ashes. Mines were also dug under some strong tow-
ers where the people were assembled, and they fell,
killing hundreds. Poor Ananias the priest was
nearly crazy in the tumult, and crawled into an
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
aqueduct ; and Hezekiah his brother hid not far off,
and there they lay in great fear while the work of
death went on above them. But they were found
next day by the robbers, who took their lives.
When God gives up a people, he chooses his own
instruments by which to 'punish them. All these
troubles were steps towards the final overthrow of
" Well, father," said Charles, u the Jews did not
seem to be any better off in other places ; for in
Caesarea Floras was murdering them by thousands.
They ran to and fro, trying to save their wives and
children ; but twenty thousand lay dead there in
the streets at one time. As soon as the news of this
horrid massacre spread over Palestine, every city
was aroused and flew to arms. Some joined their
enemies, and they fought and destroyed each other
in the most dreadful manner.
4 'When it was night, a terrible fear, worse if
possible than death itself, prevailed, and robbers
could be seen treading around among the dead look-
ing for plunder. At Scythopolis the Jews were so
alarmed that they all went into the ranks of the
Romans; but they were suspicious of the Jews, and
fearing they might betray the city, commanded them
to go to a grove, a few miles out, and remain there
in quietness. They left their all and went ; but the
second night they were awakened only to see them-
selves and their families cut down by the sword of
•the Romans, and learn too late that they had been
sent there that they might all be killed at once.
"When the sun arose the next morning, it looked
down upon thirteen thousand dead bodies in that
place. At Askelon, a city of the Philistines, twenty-
five hundred were killed. At Ptolemais and Tyre,
and indeed in every city, imprisonment or death
was their portion. And even down in Egypt, at
Alexandria, the Romans are said to have killed
fifty thousand in one day."
"Charles," said Mr. Sherman, "you give us a
very deplorable account of the country, and of the
Jews generally ; I should suppose that by that time
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
there would have been some organized array among
the Jews for their own protection. "
" Josephus did call a large meeting in Jerusa-
lem," said Charles, " and told the people that, as
the difficulties had gone so far, there was no hope of
peace, and if they would unite, he would do all in
his power to help them. So he joined heartily with
his nation, and became their counsellor. Cestius
heard of all the movements and disturbances in the
country, and thought the time had now come when
an army must be raised and the Jews brought into
"He took the twelfth Roman legion from Anti-
och ; and many small cities each sent in two thou-
sand cavalry, with great numbers of archers ; and
the petty kings around furnished troops ; so that,
when they were all collected, armed, and drilled,'
they looked very formidable. Agrippa took part
of them under his command, and marched down with
Cestius towards Jerusalem. When they reached
Zebulon, a city of Galilee, not an individual was to
be seen ; all had fled to the mountains ; so they dis-
tributed themselves over the city, which was full of
every good thing, took what they wanted, and then
set fire to the place, though it was of admirable
beauty, and marched on. The inhabitants soon after
returned, only to see the smouldering ruins of their
once peaceful homes. It aroused them, however,
and hundreds hurried on to assist in the defence of
1 'The Feast of Tabernacles occurred about this
time, and as Jerusalem was filled up with strong
men, they were armed and put upon duty. Jose-
phus estimates that on such occasions not far from
three millions of people were in the city, and Ces-
tius thought this a good time to strike a blow."
"His camp, 77 said Mr. Sherman, " was a few
miles from Jerusalem, and was equal to any of mod-
ern times. If the ground was uneven, they levelled
it, and divided it up into streets. The tent of the
general was placed in the centre, and his officers
were encamped around him, while the common sol-
66 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
diers occupied the rest of the space. A high wall,
with towers at equal distances, encircled it, but
spaces were left for the great engines with which
they threw arrows and stones. A gate on either
side was for the use of the men and the huge army
of elephants. Other beasts were employed, partic-
ularly horses and mules, which they had by thou-
sands. When they were about to leave the camp
to attack an enemy, trumpets were sounded. At
the first blast the tents were all taken down ; at the
second the baggage was laid upon the beasts, and
all stood ready; at the third they marched. The
horsemen, with headpieces and breastplates, car-
ried a sword in their right hand and a long pole in
their left. A shield lay before them, with several
broad darts. The footmen also had headpieces and
breastplates, a lance, a spear, a buckler, a saw, a
pickaxe, a thong of leather, a hook, a basket, and pro-
vision for three days. A brazen eagle, to which they
paid divine honors, led them wherever they went, and
slothfulness or desertion was punished with death."
"On the following Sabbath, as the bright sun
gilded the tops of the mountains which were round
about Jerusalem, and lighted with splendor the
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
golden temple, the Romans were seen advancing in
solid phalanx towards the walls of the city. The
brazen eagle was raised on high, and they were
exulting in the thought that the thousands of Jews
before them would fall an easy prey to their prowess.
They had waited for holy time, thinking the Jews
on that day would make no resistance, which had
indeed been true in some parts of their history, but
now they were ready and desperate. 77
"Father,' 7 said Charles, "they were greatly
encouraged on account of their numbers, and rushed
out from the gates with such force and violence that
they broke the ranks of the Romans and marched
through the midst of them, killing and slaughtering
as they went. Some of the horsemen wheeled, and
went to the succor of those who were firm in their
places, and thus saved Cestius, who had been in
great danger. Four hundred footmen among the
Romans, and one hundred and fifteen horsemen,
were killed. Cestius then ordered a retreat to the
camp. The Jews followed, and fell upon them as
they went, and captured many of the elephants that
carried their weapons of war. Cestius lay in camp
three days ; but the Jews were on the watch, and
determined that he should not move without trou-
Mr. Sherman said, "There were many Chris-
tians in the city. Some of them had seen and talked
with Christ thirty-three years before, and had heard
him say that when they should see 1 the abomination
of desolation standing where it ought not 7 — which
meant this very army, with the images of their idols
in their ensigns — and 'Jerusalem compassed with
armies, 7 then they should 'flee to the mountains. 7
But now how could they ? The gates were shut and
watched ; no one could go in or out ; every day they
were expecting another attack from Cestius ; and,
with his well-trained forces, he felt sure of taking
the city. All they could do was, to pray that God
would deliver them; they could see no possible
way of escape. The mountains around were cov-
ered with Jews, anxious to fall upon the Eomans
70 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
if they made a move in any direction j and the thou-
sands in the city were equally determined to do
them all the harm they could. Agrippa saw his
danger, and thought to try what words would do.
He hoped to divide the Jews into parties who would
fight against each other ; so he sent two men with
orders to say to the Jews that if they would lay
down their arms and come over to him they should
" The Jews were so outraged by such offers that
they slew one of the men, and the other made his
escape badly wounded. Some of the Jews, however,
were indignant at what they termed the rash usage
of the peace embassadors, and this occasioned a war
among themselves. Cestius was on the watch for
this, and when he saw the disturbance, took his
whole army and attacked the Jews around, and
drove them back into the city. He then moved
his camp nearer the walls. ;;
"The poor Christians," said Jennie; "I hope
they will escape somehow."
JEBUSALEM ATTACKED. 71
"It will be easy for Grod to open a door for
them," replied her father.
"For three days after this," said Charles, "Ces-
tius kept a large part of his army out among the
neighboring towns, gathering grain. He was giving
the Jews time for reflection, hoping they would
come to his terms. But on the fourth day, with a
very large force and a few battering rams, he
attacked the city ; and so furious were the blows
upon the wall that it began to crack."
" Why, father," said Jennie, " if the city was so
strongly fortified both by nature and art, and had
stood so many years, why should it give out now so
"You must remember, my daughter, that Jeru-
salem had been taken several times, and its walls
destroyed and rebuilt. Perhaps the walls were not
as strong as fbrmerly. In the time of Herod the
city had outgrown its walls on the north, and he
built a new wall for its protection. It was at this
wall, which was never completed, that Cestius was
72 THE FALL OF JEKU SALEM.
at work ; and after a hard struggle with the Jews,
who threw stones and darts with great force, it fell.
The Jews all ran, and the Eomans marched in with
"But Cestius found that another wall, which
could not be so easily destroyed, stood between him
and the upper part of the city. He set fire to all
the buildings where he was, and then made arrange-
ments to attack the city where the Jews were as-
" There was great consternation among the Jews.
Some were for giving up and opening the gates at
once, others were for fighting till every man should
fall ; and in the confusion, a few slyly slid off, and
informed Cestius that they would open the gates
and let him in. He looked upon their offer with
suspicion, and after consulting with his officers, con-
cluded he would not trust or accejft their friend-
ship. 7 '
"I am glad he did not," said Jennie.
"But, my daughter/' said Mr. Sherman, "the
Romans soon after appeared behind the wall near
the temple with their battering rams. And no
sooner had they made their attack, than Josephns
and all the Jews who loved their nation, resisted,
and fought with all their energy, determining to
give their lives, before the Romans should take
their great and Holy House. Florus had secretly
corrupted the camp-master of the Roman army, and
a great number of the officers of the horse ; and by
this means the war was prolonged, they not taking
advantage of opportunities presented.
" About this time many of the principal men
among the Jews became disaffected, and, through
the persuasion of one Ananus, were about to open
the gates and invite Cestius in. But he could not
believe they were in earnest, and delayed till the
treachery was discovered. Ananus and his follow-
ers were seized, thrown from the walls, and pelted
" For five days the Romans made their attacks
upon the wall to no purpose. Then Cestius took a
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
great many of his most valiant men, with many
archers to clear the Jews from the wall, and at-
tempted to break through into the temple. Several
times the Jews drove them back; but at length the
arrows flew so thick, they were compelled to give
way. The Romans were undermining the wall, and
had all things ready to set fire to the gate of the
"Great distress now filled Jerusalem, and many
wept and lamented, as if their beautiful and holy
temple was already in flames. There seemed to be
no help for them ; the fighting men were driven
back, and others were rushing forward to open the
gates, when Cestius, not knowing how matters stood
within, suddenly became discouraged and gave
orders for his army to retire to the camp."
"Now," said Jennie, "the Christians may have
a chance to escape."
"Yes," replied her father, "our historian Jose-
phus says that ' The most eminent of the Jews swam
away from the city as from a ship when it was about
to sink. 7 It has also been said that, when the city
was finally destroyed, not one of the followers of
Christ perished within its walls.
"Cestius lay in camp that night, and the next
day moved off farther. Of course the Jews followed
him, and fell upon the rear, and by darts and stones
killed many of his men; others attacked*the sides
of the columns as they marched, and thus they went
on till they reached their old camp at G-abao. On
their way, Priscus, the commander of the sixth Ro-
man legion, was killed ; also Longinus the tribune,
and Emilius Secundus, commander of a troop of
horse. A great part of their baggage was also cap-
"Two days Cestius lay in camp, in great per-
plexity, not knowing what to do. The country was
covered with Jews, and their numbers were contin-
ually increasing ; so he concluded that the longer
he remained there, the worse off he should be. He
gave orders to kill the mules and other animals,
except such as carried their darts and machines,
76 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
that they might not fall into the hands of the
"When all were ready, the Eomans marched
out in face of the Jews, who did not annoy them
much in open ground; but in narrow places they
poured upon them stones and darts, and filling up
the narrow way hindered their march and threw
them into confusion. The horsemen could not climb
the ragged sides of the heights to attack the Jews ;
many of them attempting it fell, and were destroyed.
The distress they were in caused them to lament
aloud; but the Jews shouted and rejoiced, till the
mountains echoed back their jo} r . Had not night
set in, Cestius and his whole army might have been
taken. But they fled into Bethhoron, a place twelve
miles from Jerusalem, while the Jews lighted down
all over the hills, waiting for them to come out
again in the morning.
"Cestius now came to the conclusion that he
could never get off with his army in the daytime,
and contrived how he might best run away. He
JERUSALEM ATTACKED. 77
selected four hundred of his most courageous men,
and placing them upon the strong fortifications, told
them to erect their ensigns in the morning, that the
Jews might believe that the whole army were there ;
then, with the rest of his troops, he stole slyly off,
and travelled most of the night before his flight was
" When the Jews saw the ruse, they slew the
four hundred men, and then with all their might
pursued on after Cestius. 'All the way they found
the road strewn with weapons, engines, and instru-
ments of war ; but on they went as far as Antipa-
tris, some twenty miles or more from Jerusalem,
when they concluded to turn around and give up
" On their way back they gathered up the en-
gines, and what other things they wanted, robbed
the dead of any valuables they had upon their per-
sons, and returned to Jerusalem with great rejoi-
cings. They had killed five thousand and three hun-
dred footmen, and three hundred and eighty horse-
THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
men, while they had suffered comparatively little.
This was in October, in the twelfth year of Nero's
"That was a very mortifying defeat for those
boastful Komans," said Charles, "and no sooner did
the news of it reach Damascus, than out of revenge,
ten thousand unarmed Jews whom they had shut
up were killed."
JEKUSALEM ATTACKED. 79
"Soon after the Jews who had pursued Cestius
returned to the city, 7 ' said Mr. Sherman, "they per-
suaded some and compelled others to break the
allegiance they had professed to the Romans, and
join them ; and a large meeting was called and held
in the temple, where the war was discussed, and
generals appointed to take charge of different parts
of the country. Josephus was to have command of
Galilee ; a man by the name of John was in charge
of some cities near by : others were sent to other
parts, and so the whole land was placed under mili-
tary rulers. A hundred thousand young men in
Galilee soon offered themselves, which made a fine
army for Josephus, who had been collecting arms
from the spoils of the enemy and from other sources,
so that nearly all his men were equipped.
Getting his troops out in a large place where
he could review them, Josephus made a long ad-
dress, in which he spoke for some time of the thor-
ough discipline of the Romans, their determination
of spirit, and their courage, and said, • If you wish
80 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
to repel these enemies of yours, and drive them
from your country, you must not only observe all
things which I teach you, but you must keep from
thieving, robbery, and other sins, which provoke
Grod to fight against you.
" These one hundred thousand young men who
stood there that day full of life, and with buoyant
hope of future success, each holding the old weap-
on assigned him, looked with pride upon their
noble general, and determined as far as possible to
obey his orders, and rid their land of the oppres-
sor's rod. Josephus taught them to give signals ; to
call and recall by trumpets ; to extend the wings of
the army, and to wheel them about. He divided
them into companies, and appointed subordinate
officers over them, after the manner of the Eomans.
These officers he chose from the people of Galilee,
in order to identify them in the work and to make
them his fast friends. 77
"Father," said Charles, "Josephus was all en-
gaged in administering the affairs in his field, think-
ing he had the cooperation of all other officers near
him, and wholly unaware of the trickery and hatred
of John of GKschala.
"This John was very deceitful, and while he
pretended to respect Josephus, was all the time
plotting his overthrow. He had no principle, and
to serve his own ambition would have gone as read-
ily into the Roman ranks as into his own. Power
was what he wanted, and power was what he was
determined to have, even should he have to murder
Josephus to gain it. He was in great want of money,
and by deceiving Josephus, got the privilege of sup-
plying a part of the country with oil ; and by pur-
chasing cheap and selling dear, he made large sums,
with which he hired men to cooperate with him
11 At another time he pretended to be sick, and
asked leave to go to Tiberias for the sake of the hot
baths there. Josephus treated him very kindly,
and ordered nice accommodations for him ; but no
sooner had he reached the city, than he began to
THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
spread his treason ; and had not Josephus been
informed of his treachery, the city would have
revolted. Josephus went there with an army, and
John made his escape. 77
"I am glad to have you speak of this man," said
Mr. Sherman, "for we find him practising his kna-
very down even to the final overthrow of Jeru-
"On another occasion, father, he made Josephus
a great deal of trouble, and it came near costing
Josephus his life. Ptolemy, the steward of King
Agrippa and Bernice, was passing through the coun-
try, carrying a great many rich garments and many
silver cups, and six hundred pieces of gold, when
one of the Jewish guards laid a snare for him, and
robbed him of the whole. It was all carried to
Josephus. The robbers expected a share of it, and
being disappointed, united with John in raising a
great outcry against Josephus 7 loyalty ; and made
so many believe that their general was going to
deliver them all into the hands of the Eomans, that
they surrounded his house in the night, and he barely
escaped with his life."
"Yes, Charles, Josephus had a great deal of
trouble in establishing himself in Galilee ; but he
finally succeeded, and all went to work in earnest
to prepare for the return of the Eomans.
" In Jerusalem, two men were appointed as gov-
ernors of the city ; but there was much confusion,
and very little order. One Eleazer, the son of Si-
mon, had managed by trickery to get into his pos-
session much of the spoil they had taken from the
Eomans, and the money they had taken from Ces-
tius, and to him the people were obliged to submit.
"In every city, all through Galilee, every man
was engaged either in strengthening the walls, or
making instruments of war, or preparing for long »
sieges by laying up in the cities immense quantities
of provisions. Jotapata, which we shall hear from
hereafter, was not well supplied with water ; and as
there was no way of bringing it into the city in as
short a time as they had to work, they concluded
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
to depend upon the cisterns, as some other places
did, hoping all the time that they should escape a
''Father/' said Jennie, who had been listening
in silence, "were the people in Jerusalem expecting
the Romans back upon them again ?"
"Yes, my daughter," replied Mr. Sherman,
"they were expecting them back; and in every
part of the city men were busy at their anvils, ma-
king darts and other instruments of war, or carrying
stone and timber to those who were repairing the
walls, while others still were making all kinds of
armor. Every day also, at different places in the
city, might be seen large companies of young men
hurriedly drilling, though without much system or
order ; and the whole city was but a great work-
shop of tumultuous labor. But if you had walked
around and watched the sad countenances of the
older people, and listened to their lamentations, you
would have known that they believed that those
terrible days, of which Christ spoke, were now even
at the door. They wept and prayed and fasted, and
with loud lamentations deplored their present hope-
less condition.' 7
l M should like to know," said Charles, 1 'what
the Eomans were doing all this time. I wonder
they should give the Jews time to build up their
"They had enough to do/ 7 replied Mr. Sherman,
"for their forces were pretty well cut up and scat-
tered ; and then they were obliged to report to
Nero, their emperor, who lived in Home ; and as
they had no railroads or steamboats or telegraph
wires, they were obliged to send messengers on
their slow sailing ships to carry the sad news of
their defeat. 77
"Wasn't Nero angry when he heard that the
Romans had been defeated ? 77 asked Charles.
"He was indeed, 77 replied his father; "but he
•tried to hidfe his mortification, and in a pompous
way said, 1 My generals have been remiss ; they
have not done their duty ; 1 7 11 send a new com-
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
mander, who will exterminate those rebellious Jews.'
Then he began to wonder whom he could send : he
wanted the very best man he had among his officers.
He finally concluded to send for an old gray-
headed general who had conquered the Germans at
one time, had recovered the British Isles at another,
and had been in the army nearly all his life. His
name was Yespasiax.
1 4 When the old man heard what Nero had to
say, he replied ' that he would undertake the war,
but that he must have more troops. 7 Nero told him
to do whatever he thought best ; so Vespasian sent
his son Titus down to Alexandria in Egypt for the
fifth and tenth legions. V
" How many soldiers were there in a legion?"
"A legion was six thousand men," replied Mr.
"Then," said Jennie, "he sent for' twelve thou-
sand old warriors. Josephus had better build his
" Vespasian, 77 continued Mr. Sherman, "told
Titus to go down to Alexandria, put his troops on
board ships, and sail direct for Judea, while he
would go by land, and meet him there. Of course
it took a long time to accomplish all this ; and it
gave Josephus time to fortify the cities, and bring
the Jews to act together. Vespasian finally arrived
at Antioch, where King Agrippa with all his army
waited to receive him.
"Josephus was wide awake to all these move-
ments ; and when he heard of this great army, and
then thought of the poorly-armed Jews, and their
disposition to desert and fight against each other,
he was discouraged, and felt that it was of no use
to try to hold out any longer. Yet he would not
say so to those who were depending upon him and
looking to him for help, for they would then con-
sider him a traitor and a deserter ; so he deter-
mined to fight till the last, and die with the rest.
"Yespasian prepared for his work of death by
reorganizing his troops ; and when all were ready,
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
he marched down towards Ptolemais, which lies on
the Mediterranean below Tyre.' 7
"The Jews came out and welcomed him at
Sepphoris," said Charles.
41 Yes," replied Mr. Sherman, " and Vespasian
left them six thousand footmen and a thousand
horsemen, to pass over the plain and do all the
harm they could. Josephus did not like to lose
that city, especially as he had built great and strong
Avails around it. So he took an army and marched
against it ; but he could do nothing, and soon ran
away and went off to Tiberias."
i4 Yes, father," said Charles, "and the people at
Tiberias were very much frightened when he came
there, and thought the Eomans would come after
him and destroy their city; and they knew too that
Josephus was beginning to despair of success, and
that added to their distress."
"Well, what effect did Josephus' attempt to
recover Sepphoris have upon the Romans ?" asked
JEEU SALEM ATTACKED.
" Oh, it made them very angry, and a great deal
worse, " replied Charles. ''Those horsemen rode
night and day scouring the country for miles, burn-
ing houses, killing every one they thought strong
enough to fight, and taking others off into captiv-
ity. Galilee was filled with distress, and the peo-
ple flocked to the walled cities to get away from
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
" Josephus," said Mr. Sherman, "was at a loss
to know what to do under these terrible circum-
stances, and wrote to the men in power at Jerusa-
lem, and told them the true state of affairs. He
requested them to inform him immediately if they
thought of coming to terms with the Eomans, and
if not, to send him an army as soon as possible."
"y ESPASI AN yiTUS JhE jSlEGE OF jJ OTA PAT A.
"Titus," said Mr. Sherman, "had made all the
haste he could, and had sailed very rapidly with his
troops, considering that it was winter, and Vespa-
sian was both surprised and rejoiced when he arriv-
92 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
ed at Ptolemais. As soon as the 'troops were landed
Yespasian went out to review them.
44 They were a savage looking set of men, who
had become hardened by seeing suffering, and were
now ready for any deeds of blood in Palestine.
Titus joined them to the fifteenth legion, which was
with his father, and eighteen cohorts followed these
''How many were there in a cohort?" asked
"Generally six hundred foot soldiers," replied
Mr. Sherman, "but these were not all; five cohorts
with a troop of horse came from Csesarea ; five troops
more from Syria ; Agrippa sent in thousands of men,
and the king of Arabia six thousand more, who
were all archers. When the army was numbered
they found they had over sixty thousand men."
11 We are told .too," said Charlie, "that Placidus,
who was doing so much damage with his horsemen
over Galilee, saw so many running to Jotapata that
he determined to take it ; but the Jews came out
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA.
and fought bravely, and drove him off in disgrace.
That made Yespasian angry, and he said that he
would soon be ready, and then they would see what
could be done."
"Yes," replied Mr. Sherman, " Yespasian had
been at Ptolemais for some time, and now he was
about to move forward, and if possible find and take
Josephus. He thought if he could but get him, the
other Jews would be discouraged, and give up at
"Father," said Charles, "I have read all about
ttte siege of Jotapata, but I cannot tell it as well as
" Yery well," replied Mr. Sherman, "I shall tell
you in the first place, that the city was in north-
ern Galilee, away up on a hill, and could only be
approached from the north ; and there the road
was so bad that an army of horsemen could not
reach it. Yespasian came within a few miles, and
then sent so large a number of men to level and
widen the road that they finished it in four days."
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
11 Where was Josephns?" asked Jennie.
"He was off in Tiberias," replied Mr. Sherman;
"but he heard of what was being done, and deter-
mined to go and do what he could to save his friends.
He thought it very probable that the city would be
taken, and perhaps he should perish with the rest ;
but as he was the commander of the army and the
protector of the country, he could do nothing else."
"Father, Jotapata was the city where water was
so scarce, and they had nothing but cisterns to de-
pend upon, 7 ' said Jennie.
" Yery likely they might suffer for the want of it
before they got through," replied her father ; "but
Josephus had come, and the people were greatly
encouraged. It was in the spring too, when the
trees were putting forth their new green leaves, and
when the birds began to come back to sing among
the boughs, and build new nests in their old homes.
Yet notwithstanding all this, there was a gloom
hanging over the city. One man, we are told,
skulked off and got over into the camp of the Romans,
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA.
and informed them that Josephus had arrived and
was then in Jotapata. Vespasian was very glad to
hear that, and said, ' God is delivering him into our
hands, or he would never have shut himself up
there/ He ordered Placidus to take his thousand
horsemen, and go and keep Josephus in the city
during that night ; and promised that he would come
the next day and attack the city.
"It was near night when Placidus reached Jota-
pata and posted his troops around it; but Josephus
saw the movement, and knew that the siege had now
"I think there wasn't much sleeping there that
night, " said Charles.
"Probably not/ 7 replied Mr. Sherman, "unless
by the little children, who knew nothing of what was
before them. But I can imagine that their mothers
hung over them with aching hearts and tearful eyes."
"The next day I think they felt worse, father,"
said Charles, "for Vespasian came towards night, and
pitched his camp on a hill where all could see him."
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
"Oh, yes," replied his father, 4 4 and what a wail
of sorrow went up from those distressed hearts that
night! and how anxiously they watched, as Vespa-
sian set a double row of guards around the city, and
then another row of horsemen on the outside of
them. They had hoped to get away, but now they
were shut in, -and there they must stay. The next
morning they saw that part of the army were march-
ing down with their engines towards their wall.
"Josephus called his men together and said,
' You have nothing to hope for out of yourselves ;
fight with desperation for your wives and children. 7
The Jews then rushed out upon the Romans with
great force, and fought like so many infuriated
tigers. Yespasian and thousands of his men were
watching from the hill to see how the battle was
going, while the houses in the city were covered
with mothers, wives, and children, anxiously look-
ing over the wall for those they loved. Yespasian
observed that his men were being driven back, and
then called for the Arabian archers to come and
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA.
throw their darts and stones upon the Jews. Just
think what a shower of them came from so many
thousands of enemies ! Why, the air must have
been black with them."
"When Yespasian saw how the battle was going,
he, with a great number of footmen, came around to
a little hill from which the city might be taken more
easily. When Josephus saw this move he was in
great fear, and ran with a multitude of Jews to meet
him, and succeeded in throwing him and his soldiers
into confusion. At length night came on, and the
armies retired to their quarters, tired out with the
day's toils. For five days these two armies fought
without much advantage for either side.
" Yespasian began to get vexed, and called a
council of war. These commanders thought it best
to cut down trees, and fill up the valley at a certain
place ; and when they should reach the top of the
wall, they could very easily enter the city. The
next clay when Josephus saw this army marching off
in such large numbers, he suspected something
98 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
of the kind ; but when he saw them returning with
large trees, and vast heaps of stone and dirt, he
understood what they were doing, and ordered his
men to cast down upon them stones and darts from
the wall. This compelled the Romans to stop till
they could twist the boughs of trees together and
form screens, behind which they expected to
work. But the Jews rolled down such great rocks,
that the trees and the men were crushed before
li 1 Vespasian then ordered his men to bring out a
hundred and sixty engines, and calling out all the
Arabian archers, stationed them around the city, to
throw stones, fire, and lances upon the people. It
was not long before they were all at work, and great
stones flew screaming through the air, striking with
tremendous force. Then firebrands whizzed near
or against the Jews' heads, while the arrows came in
"Oh, I remember," said Charles, "the Jews
dashed out in great numbers, and set their engines
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA.
and their trees on fire, and burnt up their works.
Yespasian then put his army in such a position that
the Jews could not rush out upon them, and then
they went on filling up the valley, till they felt that
they were quite sure of the city."
"The Jews would not give up even then, and
went to work and raised their walls higher/ 7 said
Mr. Sherman. "Josephus first ordered them to
kill a great number of oxen, and take their wet
skins and fasten them up for screens. This they
did, and they worked night and day behind them,
till their wall was raised far above the Roman
banks. They also built towers upon them, from
which they threw stones and darts upon their ene-
mies without being themselves exposed."
"That was perseverance," said Charles.
"Yes, Yespasian was quite disheartened," re-
plied Mr. Sherman, "while the Jews were so much
encouraged that they commenced again to dash out
and burn all before them. Yespasian finally said
that the only thing he could do was to guard the
100 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
city, that no one might escape, and starve the peo-
ple into submission or to death. 77
" father , 77 exclaimed Jennie, "how wicked and
cruel ! 77
" People in war are not very merciful, 77 replied
her father. "The Jews knew, however, that they
had plenty of provisions for a long siege ; but they
were indeed anxious about the water, and thought
best to commence immediately to use it by measure. 77
" Father, 77 said Charles, " this was in the spring,
and as it did not rain in Palestine in the summer,
it might be months before their cisterns would fill
up again. 77
" Why, I should have been thirsty all the time, 77
said Jennie, " if they measured it out to me. 77
" So were they, 77 replied Charles; "and they
made a great ado, and were constantly running with
their dishes in sight of the Romans, who often threw
javelins among them, and killed many. 77
" Vespasian, 7 ' said Mr. Sherman, "thought from
what he saw that the water would shortly fail, and
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPAT A.
began to feel that fee should soon have possession of
the city ; but Josephus was cunning enough for him ;
for though he did not like to spare the water, yet he
ordered that a great many clothes should be wet,
and hung upon the battlements, till the wall should
be covered with water. Vespasian looked on with
astonishment. 'Why/ said he, 4 1 thought these
Jews had n 7 t water enough to drink, and here they
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
have it to throw away. There is no use lying here
waiting ; let us attack the city at once. 7
" That was just what the Jews wanted, for they
preferred to die in battle rather than by thirst and
"Father, 17 said Charles, " while the Romans
were lying still some of the Jews dressed themselves
in sheepskins, and trotted off in the night like dogs,
and brought in some things which they very much
needed, through an unguarded part of the city. 77
" Yes, 77 said Mr. Sherman, " Josephus was full of
contrivances, yet he had but little hope of saving
the city. He knew, indeed, that it would soon be
taken, and began to contrive how he and some of
his officers might escape. The Romans had found
out the sheepskin trick, so there was no help there ;
and the people also soon found out Josephus 7 wish
to escape, and crowded around him, and with tears
begged him not to leave them. 1 We will fight till
the last, 7 they said, 'if you will stay; but if you go,
we can do nothing more ; the city will be taken,
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA.
and our wives and children murdered.' Josephus
replied: 'If I go, I can send you help, and in that
way do you some good ; but if I stay here we shall
all soon perish together/ The people then flocked
around him — women with babies in their arms, little
children, and old men — and falling down before him,
caught hold of his feet and held him, and with great
lamentations and tears begged him to remain with
them. Josephus was greatly distressed. He knew
he could not save these people from death by remain-
ing, but he pitied them from the depths of his soul,
and finally told them that he had decided to stay
and die with them.
"Oh, how delighted these poor creatures were!
It lengthened out, they thought, their miserable
existence, and they still hoped that something might
occur to drive their enemies away. They were so
elated that they rushed upon the Romans with such
fury that they drove them back even to their camp,
and for several days they were obliged to retreat.
" Vespasian was mortified to be so annoyed, and
THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
called for his archers to clear the men from the walls.
He then brought his great battering-ram, and com-
menced pounding away with all the force he had
upon the wall. At length it began to give way, and
the people within screamed and lamented as if they
were already in the hands of the Romans. Jose-
phus hurried, and filled large sacks with chaff, and
tying a rope to each, dropped them down between
the engine and the wall."
11 Yes, father," said Charles, "that hindered a
little ; but the Romans contrived to cut off the
ropes; and then, as much of the wall was new, it
broke and began to tumble."
" And don't you remember what they did then?"
asked Mr. Sherman.
"Yes, I do. The Jews collected a great quan-
tity of pitch, brimstone, and bitumen, and rushed
out with such a blaze that that fifth legion from
Alexandria was thrown into confusion and ran for
"And just afterwards," said Mr. Sherman, "a
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA. 105
dart which was thrown by a Jew hit Yespasian in
his foot. This greatly alarmed the army, and when
Titus saw the blood he was very much alarmed ; but
Vespasian got up, and moved around before them
to show that he was not seriously hurt.
" This wound exasperated the army, and they
rushed back upon the Jews with great rage and
noise. It was now night, and a terrible night it
was ; for the sounds caused by the working of the
engines, the shrieking of the flying stones, the yells
of the warriors, the agonizing cries of the women and
children, and the groans of the dying made it truly
a night of horrors. Towards morning Yespasian
told his men that they might take a short rest, and
afterwards they would go up into the city ; and all
this time he had the city surrounded with horsemen,
who were to kill any who should make their escape.
''The day dawned, the women and children
came out, and when they saw the wall partly down,
the dead and dying and blood every where, they
mourned and screamed so terribly that Josephus
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
ordered that every woman and child should go into
the houses and remain there ; for the men could not
fight while they were present.
" The Romans were now back with their ladders
to scale the walls ; and as the last thing that could
be done, Josephus had large quantities of boiling oil
brought and poured down upon them. Oh how
they shrieked and rolled back in agony as this burn-
ing oil ran down under their armor, which they could
not remove, burning their flesh to the bone. Yes-
pasian drew back his men, and began to think he
should never succeed in subduing the place. He
had been there now one month, and yet the Jews
held out with determination. ^ Vespasian set his
army to building towers, on which he placed light
engines, and from these he threw darts and stones
directly clown upon the Jews.
" Forty-seven days these Jews had withstood all
the force the Romans brought against them ; but that
night a miserable Jew, in hope of saving his own
life, crept slyly off over to the camp of the Romans,
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA. , 107
and told Vespasian that not many were left in Jota-
pata who were able to fight, and those were so thor-
oughly tired out that they would fall asleep before
morning, and then might easily be taken. Vespa-
sian was doubtful about the truth of this, for the
Jews would not often betray each other. The Eo-
mans caught one but a few clays before, whom they
tormented, and finally crucified, in order to make
him tell what he knew of Josephus and the city;
but he told them nothing.
"Vespasian concluded finally to act upon this
man's advice, and sent his # army just before day,
with ladders, which they placed very quietly against
the wall, and Titus walked up and looked around.
There lay the guard asleep ; and the soldiers who
followed Titus cut their throats ; and on the whole
army went, and had possession of the city before the
Jews were aware that they were within the walls.
Then commenced a terrible slaughter. Women and
children ran frantic ; some men fought till they
dropped dead, and many killed themselves.
108 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
" Josephus ran to a deep pit, jumped in, and
crawled up to one side, where was quite a large
space out of sight. There he found many of his offi-
cers and friends, with food enough to last several
days. But the Romans were looking for him in ev-
ery place. They turned over the dead, and searched
the houses, killing all who came in sight, till the
city ran with "blood.
" At night, when he supposed the Romans were
asleep, Josephus went out to see if there was any
way of escape. But there was the watch by the
wall, and by the gates were soldiers with drawn
swords, and soon Josephus went back into the pit
again. He lay quietly all the next day, but at
night he stole out again. Still the guard was there,
wide awake, and Josephus felt quite discouraged as
he went back and jumped down into his miserable
prison. But he and his companions were startled
the next morning by hearing people walking, and
half- whispering up over their heads. They listened,
and drew back out of sight ; it surely was the Ro-
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA.
mans ; yes, it certainly was ! They turned pale ;
their hour had come ; they had been betrayed. In
a moment more Josephus was called, and ordered
to come out, Then the news spread, and the Ko-
mans rushed together, anxious to get hold of the
man who had done them so much harm; but he
would not appear. Yespasian sent him word that
his life should be spared ; still Josephus was afraid
to trust him. Yespasian then sent Nicanor, who,
years before had been an old friend of Josephus,
and he assured him that he should not be hurt.
Josephus was about to leave, when the men with
him raised a great noise, and said he ought rather
to kill himself like a brave man, than to give up to
the Eomans; and declared that they would run
their swords through him if he attempted to go.
Josephus had great difficulty in getting away, but
finally Nicanor led him off to Yespasian. Then
some cried, 'Kill him! kill him! 7 but Yespasian
said, 'Put him in chains, and keep him closely; I
will send him to Eome to be judged by Nero. 7 Jo-
110 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
sephus did not like that, and told Yespasian that he
wished to say something to him in private.
" Vespasian then sent all away except Titus
and two generals, when Josephus said, 1 God has
revealed to me that Nero will soon die ; afterwards
you will be proclaimed emperor over the world,
and Titns your son shall be your successor.' Yes-
pasian had had no thought of ever occupying the
throne, and was both surprised and pleased. Still
he was doubtful about the truth of this till he made
inquiries and heard that Josephus had before fore-
told events, which actually came to pass. He then
treated Josephus with kindness, though he kept him
bound with chains. Titus too formed a strong at-
tachment for Josephus, and thought him a brave
and noble man, and was ready to help him out of
prison as soon as he could. 77
"That was a pretty shrewd guess of Josephus,
wasn't it, father? 77 said Charlie. "You don 7 t sup-
pose God really told him what was going to hap-
THE SIEGE OF JOTAPATA.
"No," said Mr. Sherman; "but the change he
spoke of was likely enough to take place, for many
a Roman general succeeded in getting the throne ;
and he knew it would please Yespasian very much."
"Poor fellow," said Jennie, "he fought so brave-
ly, he ought to have been set at liberty. Do you
think, father, that he was taken to Caesarea ?"
"Yes, I presume he was," replied Mr. Sherman,
"and he may have lain in the same prison which
Paul occupied a short time before. News went to
Jerusalem that he was killed at Jotapata. His
father and mother and wife were at Jerusalem yet,
and were greatly distressed when they heard he
was captured and slain; indeed the whole city
mourned and lamented for him many days.
"All through that summer and the next, Yespa-
sian went on subduing the cities of Galilee, which
suffered about the same things that Jotapata had
done. Down by the sea of Galilee, where our
blessed Saviour spent so much of his time when on
earth, Yespasian selected six thousand of the strong-
112 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
est of the young men he had taken, and sent them
as a present to Nero, and thirty thousand he sold
for slaves. 77
" So many as that! 77 exclaimed Jennie.
"Yes, my child/ 7 said Mr. Sherman, "this was
a very small part of those who suffered in the same
way. Yespasian finally came to G-ischala, where
that miserable fellow John lived, who now made
his escape to Jerusalem. Grod sometimes makes
use of just such wicked men as he, to carry out his
own purposes. I think we shall hear of him again
before Jerusalem is taken. 77
"All the cities around Jerusalem Vespasian
destroyed/ 7 said Mr. Sherman, " as he had done
Jotapata ; slaying the inhabitants, or selling them
into slavery. The war carried ruin through the
114 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
hill-country and the plain, and desolation was writ-
ten upon all things. Jerusalem was not yet touched,
it was shut up within itself ; none could desert, as
indeed they had nowhere to go, but into the very
jaws of their enemy.
" Yespasian retired for a while to Csesarea for a
little rest, when he designed to come out and finish
his work by destroying the great and Holy City.
But he had not been long at Caesarea, before he
heard with great surprise of the death of Nero,
which caused a profound sensation among those Ro-
man warriors. The question, ' Who is to be the
next emperor V was discussed ; but they soon heard
that ' a man by the name of Galba had been pro-
claimed. And Yespasian requested Titus to go by
ship to Eome, although it was winter and bad sail-
ing, to get any commands this new emperor had
" Agrippa accompanied Titus ; but they had not
gone more than halfway, before he heard that there
was almost a civil war at Rome ; that Galba was
dead, and that a man by the name of Otho had
become emperor in his stead. Titus immediately
turned back, and hurried to inform his father. Not
many weeks after this, Otho killed himself, and
Rome was in great disorder. The soldiers then
began to beg Vespasian to assume the government
himself ; and though he at first hesitated, he finally
yielded, and there in Palestine, he was proclaimed
emperor of Rome, amidst great rejoicing. This re-
minded him of Josephus 7 prophecy, and he ordered
him to be brought in.
" How thin and haggard the poor man must
have looked when he appeared at the door, drag-
ging that heavy chain ! We imagine him stretching
out his hand and saying, 1 Did I not tell you, .0
Caesar, thou emperor and lord over the land and
the sea, and over all mankind, that thou shouldest
arrive at this honor? 7 * Vespasian said, 1 Cut off his
chains. Put upon him new garments, and set him
"Soon after this, Vespasian determined to go
116 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
to Alexandria in Egypt, to gain support in that
city, and then go on to Rome. And whom do you
think he took with him, Charles V 1
"I don't know, father ; was it Titus ?"
"Yes, Titus and Josephus both, 7 ' replied Mr.
Sherman ; "for he now wished to befriend Josephus,
and make him as happy as he had been made mis-
erable. When they arrived at Alexandria, thou-
sands of people from every part of the empire came
to welcome Vespasian as their new emperor. They
rejoiced greatly, and had festivities, and offered
sacrifices and oblations for many days. This was
in the winter of a. d. 70; and Jerusalem had not
yet been attacked, on account of the revolutions at
"But now, Vespasian told Titus that he should
commit the whole to him, while he himself would
go to Rome to care for the empire. Titus took a
select part of the army which l&y at Alexandria,
and started on foot for Judea."
"Father," said Jennie, "he must have travelled
TITUS IN COMMAND.
over nearly the same ground that Joseph and Mary
and the infant Saviour did, a few years before ; but
they were not going to destroy people as Titus was r
but to do them good."
"That is true, 75 replied Mr. Sherman. "God
sends his blessings first, and if they are rejected,
then comes the punishment. He uses whatever
means he pleases. Sometimes it is sickness, some-
times war, and at other times famine, and indeed
they often all three go together."
"What were the people doing at Jerusalem all
this time ? 77 asked Charles.
"At first,' 7 replied Mr. Sherman, " they went to
work and laid up vast quantities of grain and other
provisions, so that in case of a siege they need not
starve to death. 77
"That was sensible, 77 said Charles.
" Yes, 77 replied his father ; " but it was not long-
before they began to fight again among themselves.
That miserable John of Gischala was there, trying
to get command of the city. He was very cruel,
THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
and often murdered those who opposed him. But
this could not go on a great while, for there were
men of spirit there, who would not be ruled by such
a tyrant ; and quite an army of them, headed by a
man by the name of Eleazar, came out boldly and
took possession of the beautiful and holy temple ;
and when John with his army came against him,
they fought from that place, and the temple was
defiled with human blood. "
TITUS IN COMMAND.
4 4 This," said Charles, " was while the Eomans
were marching on to destroy them. What miser-
able work they had ! Was n't there anybody
there, father, that could bring them to see their
" There were people there," replied Mr. Sher-
man, "who were greatly distressed at this state of
things; and they finally urged Simon, a man of
great influence, to take hold of the matter, and see
if he could not bring the city into order."
"Did he succeed?" asked Jennie.
"No, indeed, my child; he only made matters
worse ; for he fought both parties, and so they all
three fought each other. John had engines, and
threw stones and darts into the temple ; so that
when people came there to worship, they and the
priests were often killed, and their blood ran with
that of the animal they were sacrificing, and stood
in pools in the court. John was so bitter against
those who opposed him, that he and his army rushed
down upon those great storehouses where were thou-
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
sands and thousands of bushels of grain, and set
them on fire and burned them to the ground.' 7
''Burned them ! 77 exclaimed Charles.
"Yes, they did,' 7 replied Mr. Sherman, "just
out of spite, although they knew that they and their
own families would suffer for the want of food. Of
course matters grew worse after this. Nothing
could restrain them, and they went on fighting each
other, and burning down buildings around the tem-
ple, till they had a large open space where they
fought day and night, filling the city with hideous
noises and death. 77
"Why, father, 77 asked Charles, "why didn 7 t the
people, who were disposed for peace, take their fam-
ilies and get away somehow ? 77
"Because, my child, the gates were guarded,
and if any attempted to go out, they were killed
without mercy. 77
" Well, it could n 7 t have been much worse, 77 said
Charles, "if the Romans had been there, trying to
take the city/ 1
TITUS IN COMMAND.
"It would seem not," replied Mr. Sherman;
"some thought it would be better, and were anx-
ious to have them arrive."
"Father," said Jennie, "wasn't it dreadful to
have fighting going on in that temple ? It was the
house of God ! And besides, you told us once that
it was the most beautiful and costly building in the
world, being covered with gold."
"Yes, my child, you have no idea of the splen-
dor of that house. In the first place, the stones on
which it was built were larger than any you ever
saw. There are some to be seen there now twenty-
five feet long; and Josephus speaks of several over
sixty feet long, and thicker than I am tall, which
makes a pretty large stone ; and to put them in
their places would be no child's play."
" Why, father," said Charles, "I don't wonder
the disciples said to Christ when they were leaving
the temple, "See what manner of stones these
are. 7 "
" Yes," said Jennie ; " and then Christ told them
122 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
the time was coming when they should be thrown
44 Did these men go inside the temple to fight VI
" The temple, my daughter, had around it sev-
eral courts or open places, where thousands of peo-
ple used to stand when they came up to their great
feasts ; and the whole temple area was surrounded
by a high and strong wall, with a fort at the north*
end, called the tower of Antonia. These were the
places, rather than the Holy Place itself, where so
many were killed and so much blood was spilled.
"While these things were occurring, Titus had
arrived at Caesarea, reorganized his troops, and
made ready to march against Jerusalem. He had
the troops which his father had left, and those which
were with Cestius when he was driven away from
the city. These last were anxious to go and take
revenge upon the Jews for their former defeat.
Then he had his two thousand chosen men whom
he brought from Egypt, besides a very wise man by
SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM.
the name of Alexander, whom Vespasian sent as a
counsellor and friend to Titus. Caesarea was only
sixty miles from Jerusalem, and the second day's
march brought Titus within a few miles of the city,
where he stopped and pitched his camp. He then
chose out six hundred of his best horsemen, and
went down to reconnoitre. He wanted to see what
the fortifications were, and he hoped the people
would be awed into submission without bloodshed.
As he wound around the hills and through the val-
leys, he suddenly came to a spot where he had a
splendid view of the city. The great temple daz-
zled his sight and astonished his men. ' That house
shall never be destroyed/ he said, 'if I can prevent
it ; for it is a holy house, and a wonder to all na-
tions. 7 While he was talking, lie turned his horse
into a road at the right, that he might view the wall
from that side, when suddenly the Jews poured out
upon them in such a tumultuous and unexpected
way, that Titus was cut off from most of his follow-
ers, and came very near being killed. Two of his
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
men were cut to pieces and their liorses taken.
Titus finally made his escape with the rest, and was
glad to get back into camp again.
" The next night, a legion which had been at
Emmaus came up. and Titus assigned them a place
on a hill, from which they had a fine view of the
city and its golden temple. Another camp was
pitched a short way back of these, and one or two
other legions were stationed upon Mount Olivet.' 7
"The city was nearly surrounded with troops/ 7
1 "You recollect/' 7 said Mr. Sherman, "that just
before the crucifixion, when Christ was in Jerusa-
lem talking to his disciples about the destruction of
the temple, and the great tribulation that was to
come, he added that when they saw the city com-
passed by armies, they might know that the deso-
lation was nigh, and that then they must flee to the
" Do you think, father,*' asked Jennie, "that the
Christians left when Titus came ?"
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 125
" Yes, I think all who could escape from those
tyrants inside did so, but most of the Christians had
left three or four years before. 77
"Isn't it strange/ 7 said Charles, "that when
these Romans lay there at their very gates, the Jews
should continue to fight and destroy each other,
instead of uniting against their common enemy ? 77
"Very, 77 replied Mr. Sherman; "but some old
Greek writer expressed a truth when he said,
' Those whom the gods mean to destroy, they first
make mad. 7 These Jews made several attempts to
unite, and one day they all rushed out together in
a disorderly way upon the Romans at Mount Olivet,
and came near routing the whole legion ; but Titus
heard of it, and took other troops there, and had a
long hard fight. When the watchman upon the
wall saw Titus moving his troops, he took it for a
retreat, and shook his garment as a signal, and out
rushed the Jews again like a drove of wild animals.
They came as if they were shot from an engine ;
nobody could stand before them, and finally the
126 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
Romans were routed, and a great panic was created
in the army. But Titus and a few others stood firm,
which brought the Roman army to a stand, and they
succeeded in driving the Jews hurriedly into the city.
"It was now in the early part of April, when
the Jews celebrate the feast of the Passover ; and
according to Josephus, on such occasions there were
two or three millions present. Besides, people had
been so disturbed in other places, that they ran to
this stronghold for protection, thinking it was a
holy city, and G-od would defend it and them, as he
had done in former years. There was one rich
woman by the name of Mary, who had lived in
Perea, east of the Jordan, and had been brought up
in luxury and ease ; but she, with a great many
others, became very much frightened, and sought
refuge in Jerusalem. She took all she could of her
property with her, and commenced living there in
a very comfortable way, I suppose. She had a
beautiful little boy, who, although not old enough
to be weaned, was a comfort and joy to her in the
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM.
strange city. It was a bad place for babies, but
Mary could not do without the little boy, and she
hoped by coming there to preserve his life. Be-
sides, she was a Jewess, and wished to be near the
temple, where she could worship the Grod of her
fathers, as she was commanded."
"Father," said Charles, " could the people at
that time go into the temple to worship ?"
"Yes," replied Mr. Sherman, "Eleazer who had
command of the temple, opened some one of those
large gates for the worshippers ; and every morning
and evening they sacrificed a lamb, as God had
commanded ; and besides, at the passover all were
required to be present, and each family to sacrifice
a lamb for themselves. About this time John threw
cloaks over some of his armed men, and sent them
in as if to worship ; but when they were fairly in
the temple, they threw off their disguise, and ap-
peared all ready for fighting. The people around
the altar were killed in great numbers, and their
bodies thrown in heaps."
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
^he jSiEGE of Jerusalem — j^UNGER.
' 1 Titus had now lain before the city several
days ; but finding the Jews made no signs of coming
to terms, he built banks or mounds against the walls
of the city, after which he and a few chosen horse-
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. |*L29
men rode out to discover if possible the best place of
attack. He did not dare approach very near, but
seeing a few Jews upon the wall, called out with a
loud voice, to know if they would submit and re-
ceive pardon from him, and thus save their lives
and the city. 77
" One man, father, 77 said Charles, " drew his
bow, and shot at Titus ; but the arrow hit one of his
officers in the shoulder and made a bad wound. 77
"It made Titus quite angry, 77 replied Mr. Sher-
man, 77 and he ordered that all the buildings in the
suburbs of the city should be immediately burnt to
the ground. He placed his engines on the mounds,
and called out his archers, and cleared every Jew
off from the wall. Then commenced in earnest that
dreadful siege towards which every thing around had
been so long tending.
"In the city, Simon, who had great influence
among the Jews, had an army of not less than ten
thousand men ; and John, who had possession of the
temple, had about eight thousand. But the regular
130* THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
inhabitants of the city had long been in want of
food, and with great anxiety asked of each other
what could be done. They said. 'Simon and his
men are hunting the city over, and gathering up
every thing there is to eat ; they take our meat and
bread from our houses, and we have hardly had a
full meal for weeks. And in the other part of the
city, around the temple, John and his men are doing
the same things ; and some in that neighborhood are
starving to death ! Oh, the folly of burning up our
storehouses! 7 "
"I wonder/ 7 said .Jennie, "how Mary and her
baby got along ?"
"Pretty well for some time/ 7 replied Mr. Sher-
man, "for she had money ; 'and as long as there was
any thing to buy she had it. But at length these
soldiers noticing she looked well, searched her house,
and took all they could find. This they repeated day
after day, till she talked very plainly to them about
their conduct. But it made no difference, and
sometimes for two or three days she had nothing. 77
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 131
"The baby," said Jennie, " played and was as
happy as ever I suppose.' 7
" I presume so," said her father ; "but Mary was
miserable enough, for she was not only hungry her-
self, but was obliged to see others around her starv-
ing and growing every day weaker and weaker.
Little children were wandering around the streets,
their eyes large and staring, and their fingers thin
and bony, looking for something to eat ; and if by
chance any one of them found a crust, some miserable
soldier snatched it away, often pulling the poor little
ones off their feet in order to get it."
"What cruel men!" exclaimed Jennie.
"People will do any thing when they are starv-
ing," said Mr. Sherman. "While these things were'
occurring, Titus was still at work against the wall ;
and from three high towers which he built, threw
stones, darts, and fire into the city. But one night,
when the Romans were in their camp sleeping, a
tremendous noise shook the earth, and caused every
man to spring to his feet ; all was confusion till it
132 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
was ascertained that one of the towers erected by
the Romans had fallen. The Jews too, were fright-
ened, thinking their own wall had tumbled, and that
the Romans were in the city.
" Titus next built a new engine of great power,
which he named Nico. This he brought to bear
upon a weak part of the wall, and the Jews in great
terror soon saw it yielding. When they saw that it
must fall, they withdrew and shut themselves within
the next wall, for the city was surrounded by three,
and they soon saw the Romans clambering oyer the
outer wall. Those who got in first, opened the gates
for the others, and soon they had possession of all
that part of the city, which they burned. They then
demolished the captured wall, that it might no longer
be in their way."
" We have not heard any thing of Josephus for
some time," said Jennie.
"We do not know when he returned," replied
her father; "but he was now with Titus, who had
great regard for him.
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. 133
" A few Jews appeared upon the wall about this
time, and begged to be received and forgiven. Titus
asked Josephus to go forward to receive their pledge,
but he assured Titus that they were not to be trust-
ed. A Roman soldier, noticing that they offered a
bag of gold, darted forward to receive it ; but they
threw a large stone at his head from which he
barely escaped. Titus ordered the great engine
Nico to be brought forward : this was expected to
conquer all things, and soon it was battering away
upon the second wall."
"The Jews must have known by this time/ 7 said
Charles, "that they would finally be conquered,
yet it seems that they would rather suffer starvation
and death itself, than submit."
"That is true," replied Mr. Sherman; "but of
what avail was all their courage, when they were
forsaken of Grocl? Just within and near the wall,
were many narrow streets, lined with stores, where
wool and cloth were formerly sold in large quanti-
ties ; and it was not long before Nico had broken
134 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
through into these, and just five days from the time
the first wall fell, Titus and a thousand men clam-
bered over this second wall and stood within the city.
" Titus thought that the Jews would then surely
submit, and he could preserve the city and temple as
trophies of his victory. But he was again deceived ;
for they poured down upon the Romans in those
narrow streets in such numbers, as to threaten their
utter destruction. The breach in the wall was so
narrow that only a few could retreat at once, while
those outside could render little assistance. Titus
took a bold stand and kept the Jews back, while
one by one his men climbed over, and made their
"I think Titus was not very wise to get himself
in such a tight place," said Charles.
"No, he was not," replied Mr. Sherman. "It
was a great defeat, and encouraged the Jews to hold
out still longer."
" I wonder," said Jennie, " how those poor starv-
ing people were getting along by this time ?"
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. 135
" my daughter, they were dying every day,
and because the stench was becoming so bad in the
streets, their friends took the dead down to the lower
part of the city, and threw them in heaps over the
wall. The soldiers^ were glad to have people die,
feeling that there would be more food left for the
"Mary was growing thin and sick and desper-
ate, and railed upon the soldiers when they came to
sf ,rch her house for food. All who passed her door
showed that starvation was feeding upon them. Jer-
emiah lamented in prospect of such a time as this :
4 Their skin cleaveth to their bones ; it is with-
ered, it is become like a -stick.* They pine away,
stricken through for the want of the fruit of the field.
Their visage is blacker than a coal, they are not
known in the streets ; ? and this became literally true.
Fathers could hardly recognize their own children,
or the children their parents, such fearful work had
the famine made upon them.
"Titus again brought his great engine against
136 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
the wall ; and on the fourth day, though the Jews
stood so firmly, they were obliged to yield. The
Romans made thorough work this time, and marched
forward in a body within the second wall, and began
to lay plans for demolishing the next, and only one
" Titus hoped, by exhibiting before the distressed
Jews his great and formidable army, to awe them
into submission. So he ordered his commanders to
bring out their troops all equipped as for battle ; the
footmen with their shining spears and breastplates,
and the cavalry with their horses in rich trappings.
The day arrived, and the troops came by thousands,
and took their places where they pould be seen by
the starving Jews, who covered the housetops and
wall, watching this grand and imposing sight. The
next day the Romans were all brought out again,
and the next : still the Jews sent no word that they
would yield. Then the fourth day they again made
their appearance, and in sight of the Jews received
their pay. Food also was exhibited in large quan-
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 137
tities ; but they had to go back to their tents with-
out bringing the Jews to terms."
"It is astonishing," said Mr. Sherman, "what
recklessness and barbarity existed among the se-
ditious factions around the temple. Simon had
been raised to his present position through the influ-
ence of one of the high-priests, a man of eminence
and integrity ; but soon after coming into power, he
accused this priest and his three sons of sympathy
with the Eomans ; and without giving him the privi-
lege of making a defence, condemned them all to die.
The old man begged to go first, that he might not
witness the death of his children ; but this reasona-
ble request was refused, and he was compelled to
see them all cruelly murdered. Then, amid jests
and tumults, his own life was taken, and the four
mangled bodies were thrown over to the Romans.
This is but a sample of what was daily occurring."
" Yes," said Charles, "and I read that Josephus 7
aged father was thrown into prison, and a public
proclamation made that no one should be allowed to
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
speak to him singly or in company ; and if any one
raised a voice against this cruelty, he was immedi-
ately to be put to death. 77
"They probably treated the father worse than
they otherwise would, 17 said Mr. Sherman, "on
account of their hatred of the son. This oppres-
sion became so intolerable that ten men banded
together to throw off the yoke by opening the
gates fo£ the Eomans. They had command of
a tower ; and about three o'clock at night, when
they thought every eye around them was closed in
sleep, the offer was made, and they waited in excite-
ment to welcome their liberators. But the Romans
were afraid of deception, and hesitated. At length
Titus accepted the offer, and started with his army
for the gate ; but before he reached it Simon dis-
covered the plot, took the tower into his own hands,
and seizing upon those men, put them to death, and
threw to the Romans their dead and bleeding bodies.
Josephus was passing near, and was hit upon the
head by a stone, which felled him to the ground,
THE SIEGE OF JEKUSALEM.
where he lay insensible. The Jews seeing this,
shouted and rejoiced, thinking they had killed their
greatest enemy ; and rushing out, attempted to seize
his body to drag it into the city. The Romans met
them, and after a severe skirmish, succeeded in
taking him back to the camp.
"The news soon spread over Jerusalem that
Josephus was dead, and his poor old mother, who
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
lay in prison, was told the sad news. Her heart
had long been nearly crushed by the sorrows she
had experienced, but this was too much, and she
mourned and lamented many days. She exclaimed :
' This is all the advantage I have from bringing so
extraordinary a person into the world ! I shall not
^be able even to bury him, by whom I myself ex-
pected to have been buried!' Josephus, however,
soon recovered and came out, and with a loud voice
threatened punishment upon those who had wounded
him. He also exhorted them earnestly to accept of
terms from Titus.
"His appearance created not a little terror
among the seditious Jews. Many who were dis-
posed to accept his offer leaped from the wall and
ran for the Roman camp ; while others, snatching
stones, ran in pursuit as if to bring them back, but
when fairly out of the reach of the wall, they made
their escape also. So long, had they been without
food, that they were bloated and diseased, and
should have been cautious when food was set before
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. 141
theni ; but they ate voraciously, and soon after died
in great agony. Some, however, were more cau-
tious ; but they, and great numbers of others who
came in, were cruelly killed for the gold which it
was reported they had swallowed. In one night
about two thousand of these poor creatures, who had
come for protection, were dissected for this reason.
There seemed to be no place on the earth for the
poor Jews. Abandoned of G-od, starved and mur-
dered both in and out of the city, they perished, and
there was none to pity or save. Titus was indig-
nant when he heard of this brutality, and would have
punished the offenders with death, had not their
numbers been so great. Still, these murders were
continued after this, notwithstanding his threats. 7 '
"Father," said Charles, "we do not hear much
about that John of Gischala; Simon seems to take
the lead in the city."
"John was there/ 7 replied Mr. Sherman, "and
at his old business of plundering. He entered the
holy temple about this time, and robbed it of many
142 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
of its golden dishes, which had been sent by for-
eigners, Roman kings, and others, and melted them
down, to gratify his love of money. They were
considered so sacred that the devont Jews almost
expected the earth to open and swallow him up;
but he replied that he was fighting for the Divinity,
and therefore it was right to use divine things.
"A Jew, who had been appointed to stand by
the gate and pay a certain amount for carrying out
the dead bodies, and therefore was obliged to keep
the account, made his escape to the Roman camp.
He informed Titus that since his army had lain
before the city, about four months, there had been
carried through the gate one hundred and fifteen
thousand eight hundred and eighty dead bodies.
Other eminent men made their escape also, and told
Titus that as many as six hundred thousand were
thrown out ; and as they Were no longer able to
carry out the bodies of the poor, they had taken
them into large houses, laid them in heaps, and shut
them up. They also said that the people who were
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 143
brought up very delicately, and hardly touched their
feet to the ground in former years, were now search-
ing over sewers and old refuse-heaps where cattle
had been for morsels of food. How true were the
prophet's words, 1 They that were brought up in scar-
let embraced dunghills.' How would Titus have felt
had he known that in eleven years from that time
he was to meet, in the eternal world, the thousands
who were perishing around him ? He now professed
to deplore their fate, but said their blood was upon
their own heads.
il Josephus went again towards the walls to plead
with the Jews to yield ; and though they jested, and
shot their darts at him, he stood and urged them to
consider the death that was surely coming upon
them. 4 1 know, 7 he said, 'that my mothe*, wife,
and children are with you, and will share your fate,
but that is not why I plead. If that be all, kill them
and me also, if it will but bring you to consider, and
turn from your folly.\ But his long talk did no good,
and he was obliged to leave them to their own cho-
144: THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
sen way. John and Simon now seemed more- deter-
mined than ever to keep every one in the city ; and
if a person was even suspected of wishing to leave,
his throat was cut immediately. The famine was
growing more and more terrible every day, and
many now gave all they possessed for a small quan-
tity of barley or wheat, which they slyly carried to
some inner room, and there, with the door locked,
devoured it in silence. Others attempted to make
it into bread, but snatched it away half cooked, and
ate it hastily. No one set a table for a regular meal,
but children pulled the last morsel from their pa-
rents ; and even mothers, with all their natural love,
stole the bread from the bony fingers of their chil-
dren, and ate it themselves."
" Father, ?; said Charles, " that is too heart-rend-
ing an account even to think of."
"It is so, ;; replied Mr. Sherman, "but it is lit-
erally true. Titus found that he must now go to
work in good earnest, and take^ by force the remain-
ing part of the city. He gathered trees from great
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM.
distances, for all near the city had been destroyed,
and built four banks from the valley up against
the wall, the Jews all the time pouring upon them
stones, darts, and fire-brands ; yet the work went
''He also ordered a party of horsemen to go
around in the valleys, and catch any of the poor,
starving creatures who might be out gathering herbs
to eat ; and some days they brought in as many as
five hundred. These the Eomans tormented in va-
rious ways, and then crucified them. One writer
observes that 'so many were destroyed in this way,
that the Romans lacked wood for crosses, and crosses
for the bodies of these Jews. 7 All this was done so
near the city, that their friends had a full view of
their sufferings. 77
"How much better it would have been for them,' 7
said Charles, "to have died in battle, than to have
suffered so long. 7 7
" Meanwhile the mounds were steadily advan-
cing. The one near the tower of Antonia was their
Jerusalem. ~[ Q
146 THE FALL 0% JEKUSALEM.
principal hope ; for if they could but break through
that, they would secure the temple, which was the
main thing left."
"The Jews," said Charles, " saw their clanger;
and while the Romans worked without, they were
busy within, digging a deep pit directly under the
Roman mound. They supported it with heavy tim-
bers covered with pitch, and filled it with combus-
tible materials ; and when the Romans were all
ready to take the city, as they thought, the Jews
set fire to the cave, and soon the whole bank fell
with a tremendous noise. The smoke and dust
came up in a thick cloud and darkened the air ; but
when the flames burst out, the Romans began to
realize what had happened. 77
"They were frightened and discouraged/ 7 said
Mr. Sherman, "but the Jews took heart again, and
came boldly out after that, and had some hard fights.
Titus began to fear that, as he was so long in taking
the city, he should gain little glory and no praise
from his father. So he called his commanders to-
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 147
gether, and counselled with them what should be
done. Some of the rash ones advised to go in a
body and storm the place, and take it at all hazards.
Others counselled that a wall be built all around
the city, so that not a Jew should escape. This
they concluded upon ; and so great was the zeal of
the soldiers, that in three days this great work was
"Why, father, 77 asked Jennie, "how could they
have made it in so short a time ? 77
"On the principle, my child, that 'many hands
make light work. 7 Besides, there lay the old walls,
giving them plenty of stone at hand."
"Do you suppose, father, 77 asked Charles, "that
any of the apostles who had loved Jerusalem and
walked its streets with Christ, were still alive ? 77
"Yes, 77 replied Mr. Sherman; "John, the be-
loved disciple, he who lay upon the Saviour 7 s bosom
at the Last Supper, and who was the first to ask,
1 Lord, is it I who shall betray thee V he was still a
bold follower of Christ, and more than twenty years
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
after this time was banished to the Isle of Patmos.
You remember he there had a glorious view of the
Saviour, who said to him, 'I am he that liveth, and
was dead, and behold I am alive for evermore.'
The apostle Paul was beheaded a little while before
Vespasian was made emperor. So he was spared
the distress which John must have felt over the fall
of Jerusalem. 77
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. 149
pURNING OF THE j EMPLE J AMINE.
4 4 With sinking and despairing hearts, 77 said Mr.
Sherman, "the Jews watched the progress of the
Eoman wall as it rose higher and higher, shutting
out for ever their last hope of life or escape. Along
150 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
those streets, now covered with the dead and dying,
Christ had carried the heavy cross amid the taunts
and jeers of some, and the sympathy and tears of
others ; and perhaps some of the aged among these
suffering Jews now remembered his compassionate
look as he turned and said, 'Daughters of Jerusa-
lem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves and
for your children. 7 The days had come to which he
referred when he said, 'For there shall be great
tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of
the world to this time, nor ever shall be. 7
"The famine now grew more severe, and 'the
tongue of the sucking child clave to the roof of his
mouth for thirst. 7 'The .young children ask bread,
and no man bringeth to them. 7 'They that fed del-
icately are desolate in the streets. 7 The upper
rooms of the houses were filled with the dead or
dying, with their faces all turned towards the tem-
ple, as if foj; help from Him who had forsaken them.
Some, who were stronger, wandered up and down
the streets and the lanes, and fell dead where thev
THE SIEGE OF JEE CJSALEM.
were. Others, in an effort to bury some clear one,
fell themselves into the grave, and were unable to
rise. No lamentation was made, but with dry eyes
and open mouth they gazed upon the scene. A
deep and ominous silence pervaded the city; but
here and there a footfall was heard of some who
were perhaps staggering under the weight of a dead
body, which they were carrying towards the wall.
Yet the robbers still prowled around, breaking open
dwellings, and taking from the dead what they cov-
eted, or robbing the living of their last morsel of
food. So great were the heaps of dead bodies
around the city, that they blocked up the way of
those who rushed out to battle, and they trod them
under foot, and fought with a sort of brutish des-
"Titus again commenced building banks, send-
ing ten or twelve miles for timber ; for the whole
country around Jerusalem, which had been noted
for groves and gardens, lay a barren waste. Three
weeks went by before these banks were finished ;
152 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
and a long three weeks they were for the anxious,
starving people in the city. The Romans were con-
stantly fearful lest their banks might be burned
down, as the others had been, and they could hardly
hope to build more ; wiiile the Jews trembled lest
the Romans should gain entrance to the inner city.
Simon and his men were now sorely feeling the want
of food ; and they made several ineffectual attempts
to burn the banks ; but the Romans placed their
battering-rams upon them, and made their first
attack near the great and strong tower of Antonia.
They imagined that it would yield ; but it stood like
a solid rock. The Jews poured down upon them
darts and stones with great force ; but they threw
their shields over their bodies, an.d with bars of iron
succeeded in removing four large stones. This,
with the mine which the Jews had before dug, so
weakened the wall, that in the night the ground
caved in and it suddenly fell. But the Romans
were discouraged when they saw another wall
within, which John and his men had built. Titus
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 153
knew that the soldiers who should first advance
would certainly be killed ; and he made them a
long speech, appealing to their courage, which he
said ought surely to be equal to that of the Jews,
who were now fighting without hope. He also
offered rewards to those who should volunteer to
go first, and assured them that ' if they should die
in the attempt, their names would be crowned with
glory here, and their souls would be taken up and
joined to that pure company who are among the
stars/ Titus did not hide the danger of the under-
taking, and there was a general drawing back among
M At length, Sabinus, a Syrian, stepped forward,
and said, ' I surrender mvself to thee, Cassar. I
will first ascend the wall. Ill success will not be
unexpected, but I choose death voluntarily for your
" Every Roman was astonished, for the man was
very small and lean, and his flesh black and thin.
As he said this, he held his shield over his head
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
with his left hand, and with his sword in his right,
ran boldly forward towards the wall. Eleven Eo-
mans came out and joined him. The Jews poured
down their darts, and rolled large stones upon them ;
but Sabinus, though he was nearly overwhelmed,
succeeded, after a severe struggle, in reaching the
top of the wall and in putting the Jews to flight,
they supposing a much larger force was upon them.
But just as Sabinus was sure of success, he stum-
bled upon a stone and fell headlong. The Jews
then turned and attacked him with darts and stones,
but he raised himself up on one knee, and after de-
fending himself for some time, sank clown dead, cov-
ered with darts. Eight of the eleven were pulled
back badly wounded, and carried off to camp ; the
rest were dead. This occurred in July. 77
"It was hot weather there, I suppose, 77 said
"Yes, 77 replied Mr. Sherman, "and it is no won-
der that so many dead bodies created a pestilence.
A few clays after Sabinus fell, twelve men, who
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 155
kept watch upon the bank, called three brave men
and a trumpeter to join them, and about three o'clock
in the night, crept slyly through the ruins to the
tower of Antonia, which stood on a rock fifty feet
high, and cut the throats of the guard, and took
possession of the wall. They then ordered the
trumpeter to sound his trumpet. Immediately in
the greatest confusion, the Jews ran away, suppos-
ing that the whole Roman army was upon them.
Titus, who heard the signal, and ordered his troops
forward, was the first to ascend • and as he did so,
had a view of the Jews as they hastened forward
towards the temple. Some of them forgot the mine
they had dug under the Roman banks, and tumbled*
headlong into it. Simon and John now united their
forces, and a terrible battle was fought. Darts and
spears were of no use ; but hand to hand, with drawn
swords, they encountered the Romans, and in their
struggle often killed by mistake their own men, and
trampled them under foot. The sun came slowly
up, and looked clown upon a scene heart-sickening
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
indeed. An almost superhuman effort was made to
save the temple, and the poor half-starved Jews of
the city came rushing in to secure this result.
"Up to this time the daily sacrifice, the bleed-
ing lamb, had been laid upon the altar, and in their
estimation it must never cease. By seven o'clock
in the morning the Romans were driven back to
the tower of Antonia, which they held ; and Titus
gave orders to his soldiers to dig up some of the
foundations of the tower, to allow the rest of his
army to come up.
" While this was being clone, Titus heard that,
from the day of the battle, no priest had been found
to offer the usual sacrifice, and that the Jews were
in great trouble concerning it. Titus thought it a
good time to influence them to yield, and sent Jose-
phus to say to them, that if they were determined
to fight still longer, they ought to choose other
ground for the battles, and spare the holy house.
When Josephus spoke of the failure of the daily
sacrifice, great silence and sadness were observed
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. 157
among the people. For a long time he reasoned
with them with tears, and urged them to submit, as
late as it was, and open again the temple for the
worship of their offended Grod. It had been a day
of great sadness and lamentation among the Jews,
and many of them were ready to do any thing, that
the daily sacrifice might again be offered ; but this
was never to be. Christ, the Lamb of God, had
been offered once for all, and there was now no fur-
ther need of types and shadows. But the Jews did
not understand this, and with aching hearts ex-
claimed, 1 The Lord has east off his altar ! He hath
abhorred his sanctuary ! He hath given up into the *
hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces! 7 Jose-
phus was grieved for his countrymen, and urged
them to accept of the mercy which was offered. 77
"How did they regard his counsels, father? 77
"Most of them mocked and taunted him for
joining with his enemies, 77 replied Mr. Sherman ;
"but a few made their escape, and were sent to the
158 THE FALL OF JEBUSALEM.
city of Gophna, where they were well cared for.
The Jews, to cleter others from deserting, said that
all who had gone to the Romans were murdered,
and others who went would be served the same
way. When Titus heard of this he sent to Gophna
and recalled these men, and they came and walked
around the city walls, exhorting their countrymen
with tears and groans to spare the city. This exas-
perated the Jews, and they fought again, throwing
from their engines javelins and stones, and killing
many of their countrymen.
" Titus then thought he would try his powers of
* persuasion ; and taking Josephus as an interpreter,
he went to a place from which he could be well
heard, and told the Jews that even the Romans,
i whom they considered pagans, were shocked at the
way they treated their own holy house, and asked,
1 Why do you trample upon the dead bodies in the
temple, and why do you pollute this holy house
with the blood both of foreigners and of the Jews
themselves ? I appeal to the gods of my own coun-
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM.
try, and to every other god who ever had any re-
gard to this place — for I do not suppose it to be
regarded now by any of them. I also appeal to my
own army, and to the Jews who are with me, and
even to yourselves, that I do not force you to defile
your sanctuary. 7 He then urged them to choose
other ground on which to fight, if they were still
determined to go on in their vain resistance.
" As Josephus stood and interpreted this speech,
the seditious Jews said to each other, ' Titus is get-
ting discouraged, and hopes to conquer us by words -/
and then they mocked and defied him.
" The streets were so narrow that Titus could
not employ all his force ; but he choose out some of
his most valiant men, and committed to them as
many troops as they could use, and about three
o'clock in the morning while the Jews were all
quiet, sent them against the temple.
"They objected to Titus 7 hazarding his life by
going with them, but asked that he would go high
up in the tower, and look clown upon them, and
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
witness their zeal to please him. This he did, and
waited anxiously the result. The Eomans went
slyly forward, expecting to find the Jews asleep,
but were surprised to see them rush to meet them
in full force. Those who came first attacked the
Eomans, but those who followed, and poured into
the narrow streets, fell upon each other there in the
dark, and did not know till morning dawned that
they had killed many of their own men. Great
shouts were often heard from the tower where Titus
and others stood, urging up the troops to greater
deeds of valor, or warning them of danger; and
thus they fought many hours without any decided
advantage to either party.
" In the meantime a way had been made for the
Roman army to advance. They had also built banks
against the great and firm walls near the temple, in
the hope of getting possession of it in that way.
The Jews saw that something desperate must be
done to check their enemies, and with their own
hands they set fire to some cloisters on the north-
THE SIEGE OE JERUSALEM.
west of the holy house near the tower of Antonia,
and burnt them to the ground."
" Why, father," said Charles, " could they burn
those cloisters without burning the temple itself?"
"Yes," replied Mr. Sherman; " you must re-
member that the temple proper was not a large
building ; but including all the cloisters and courts,
it covered a space six hundred feet square."
"It was larger than I supposed," said Charles;
"but, father, I don't think I know what those clois-
"Perhaps you can imagine," replied Mr. Sher-
man, " two rows of solid white marble pillars about
forty-five feet apart and thirty-six feet high, with a
covering overhead, and beautiful large rooms fin-
ished off above ; these were cloisters, and there were
a great many of them for different purposes. The
roofs were adorned with cedar curiously ornamented,
and the ground between these outside cloisters and
the next within, was beautifully paved with varie-
gated or colored marble. The temple proper, the
162 THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
Holy Place and the Holy of Holies stood on the
top of this height, and there were steps leading from
cloister to cloister, and low walls surrounding each
separate division. It was the most wonderful work
man had ever made, and was the astonishment of
the whole earth. We, at this time, can get very
little idea of its magnificence."
"Those rows of high and beautiful marble pil-
lars on a hill must have been a grand sight/ 7 said
"Yes/ 7 replied his father; "but it would be
awfully grand to see the whole structure in flames !
Two days after the first corner burned, the Romans
set fire to another adjoining, which left a still larger
space between the tower and the temple. Skirmish-
ing between the armies was continually going on,
and the Jews were watching with great anxiety a
bank which the Romans were raising near the west-
ern cloister ; and when they saw that it had nearly
reached the top of the wall, they filled those beau-
tiful rooms with whatever they could get that would
THE SIEGE OF JEKUSALEM. 163
burn, together with pitch and bitumen, and ran
away, as if in fear. The Romans immediately
placed ladders against the wall, and leaped exult-
ingly upon the roof of this cloister, till they covered
it. Then the Jews set fire to it, and immediately
the whole was enveloped in flames. The most ter-
rible distress followed ; some of the Romans jumped
headlong down among the Jews, others drew their
swords and cut their own throats, but the greater
part perished in the fire. Great consternation pre-
vailed among the Roman army, and a sadness was
observed for many days upon their faces. Some of
the northern cloisters were burned down about this
"The surroundings of the temple were now in
a bad condition/ 7 said Charles.
"Very/ ? replied Mr. Sherman; "but the famine
was raging so terribly within the city, that death
seemed almost preferable to life. If the smallest
particle of food was found, friends fought over it
with desperation. Even the dying were searched,
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
lest they were feigning death in order to hide food
around their persons. Many were staggering along
like drunken men, often entering the same houses
two or three times a day. Old shoes and horse-gir-
dies were chewed, and the leather from their shields
they gnawed off in their distress. In passing the
house of Mary, they smelled baked meat, and rush-
ing in, they demanded that it should be brought,
threatening, if she refused, to cut her throat, which
they would have done. 77
"Where did she get meat, father?" asked
•■Where? Shall I tell you where?" asked her
father. "She had killed her own little boy, and
had roasted him and eaten one half! She brought
out now the other half from where she had hidden
it; and as she offered it to these men, said, 'Don't
be more delicate than I have been ; this is my own
son. and what has been done was my own doing.
Come, eat of this food, for I have eaten of it myself.
Do not pretend to be more compassionate than a
THE SIEGE OF JEKUSALEM.
mother; but if you so abominate this my sacrifice,
as I have eaten one half, let the rest be reserved
for me also.' The men were very much shocked at
this, and went out, though they were half inclined
to eat what she had offered them. The whole city,
and the Romans, heard of it and were horrified.
Titus said there was no guilt attached to him in the
matter, for he had offered them deliverance, which
166 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
they had scorned. Jeremiah had prophesied this
very thing six hundred years before: 'The hands
of the pitiful women have sodden their own chil-
dren. 7 77
"Father/ 7 said Jennie, "how could Mary do
such a barbarous act ? I thought she was good and
kind to her babe. 77
"So she was, my daughter, till the famine
overcame all her sympathies and love. We do not
know what we should do, placed in like circum-
stances. ' Lead us not into temptation, but deliver
us from evil, 7 should be our daily prayer.
"Titus now drew his great engine up the bank,
and set it to work with all the force he could bring ;
but it made no impression upon the wall. He then
raised ladders, and when they were well filled with
soldiers, the Jews from above managed to throw
them down, and soon, at the foot of the wall, lay
the mangled corpses of all who were upon them.
"Titus finally said there was no use in trying
any longer to save the temple, which the Jews
THE SIEGE OF JEEUSALEM. 167
seemed determined to defend to the last, and gave
orders to set one of those beautiful gates on fire. It
was thickly covered with silver, but it soon heated
through and caught the wood, and from that it ex-
tended to adjoining cloisters, and in a short time
the fire seemed to be on every side. When the
Jews saw this, there was no heart left in them, and
they sank to the earth without an effort to quench
the flames. All that day and the next the clois-
ters were burning, while they looked on in despair.
" The next day Titus commanded to quench the
fire, and make a road for the legions to advance.
In the mean time he gathered his principal com-
manders, and consulted with them in regard to the
destruction of the whole temple. Most of them
advised to demolish it entirely, saying the Jews
would never submit till this was done. Titus replied
that he was not willing to burn down so vast a work
as that was ; for if it could but stand, it would be a
glory to their nation.
" The Jews were so weary and discouraged, that
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
they made no attacks upon those who were clearing
a passage for the army. But the next morning they
attacked the Romans with so much force, that Titus
was obliged to send for reinforcements, and for three
hours they fought with great bravery ; but at length
broke and ran for the temple, and shut themselves
in the inner court.
" Titus retired to the tower of Antonia, and re-
solved to storm the temple the next morning with
his whole army. But he had not been long in the
tower when the Jews again made an attack, but
were pressed back up to the holy house, and the
Romans entered the confines where Gentile feet
were forbidden ever to tread. In the strife, a sol-
dier caught up a burning brand, and without orders
from any one, jumped upon the shoulders of a com-
rade, and thrust it through the golden framework
of a window. The flames soon burst forth, and a
most terrible and heart-rending cry went up from
the distressed Jews. No one can imagine their
feelings as they saw this, their holy house, the place
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM.
where for ages God had appeared in his glory to
comfort and direct them, now all blackening and
going to destruction. Their last hope was gone,
and they rushed forward to throw themselves into
the flames, only to have their throats cut by the
bloodthirsty Romans. Their bodies were thrown
around the altar, while their warm blood ran in
streams upon the ground.
u Titus was quietly resting in his tent, not know-
ing what was being done, till a soldier rushed in
with the sad news. He sprang to his feet, and with
his commanders hastened forward to have the fire
quenched ; but in the tumult no order that he gave
was in the least heeded or heard. He signalled to
them by his hand, and threatened, but it was all to
no purpose ; everybody seemed wild, and bent on
destruction. Some fell among the smoking ruins
around, and were unable to extricate themselves ;
others were trodden down in the passage ways, and
killed. The Jews rushed headlong into the flames,
while the dying, in their last agonizing moments,
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
turned their longing eyes towards its burning
"Titus saw that he could in no possible way
restrain the people or stay the fire ; but as it had
not reached the Holy of Holies, he and his com-
manders went into it, and saw that it was literally
covered with gold. He also saw the golden cheru-
bim, the table of showbread, and the candlesticks.
It all far surpassed any thing he had imagined ; and
he hastened out and ordered his commanders to
quench the fire at all hazards ; and if the soldiers
did not obey, to beat them with canes. But the
troops were wild over the riches of the place, and
rushed on to plunder all that could be carried off.
One soldier threw fire into the Holy Place, which
Titus had just left, and soon the flames burst out
there, and all was lost. The flames ran a great
way, and rose high over those lofty gates, and the
tumult made an echo among the mountains that
were round about, till it seemed that the whole city
had been on fire.
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. 171
"A false prophet had sent about six thousand
people, mostly women and children, into the temple
cloisters, with the assurance that God would appear
in a miraculous manner that very day for their de-
liverance ; and now these poor people appeared in
their agony, but there was no way of escape, and
they were all lost.
"Josephus says, 'No one can imagine any thing
greater or more terrible than the noise ; for there
was the shout of the Roman legions, and a sad
clamor of the seditious Jews, who were now sur-
rounded by fire and sword. The people also who
were left above, were beaten back upon the enemy,
and under a great consternation made sad moanings
at the calamity they were in. The multitude also
that was in the city joined in this outcry with those
that were upon the hill ; and besides, many of those
who were worn away by the famine, and their
mouths almost closed, when they saw the fire of the
holy house, exerted their utmost strength and broke
out into groans and cries. One would have thought
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
the hill itself was full of fire on every part of it ;
that the blood was larger in quantity than the fire,
and those that were slain more than those who slew
them ; for the ground nowhere appeared visible for
the dead bodies that lay upon it.' The dead and
dying were run over and trodden upon by the iron-
bound shoes of the Romans.
" During this great slaughter, " continued Mr.
Sherman, " Simon and John, with their men, made
their escape over a bridge to Mount Zion, the south-
western part of the city. This was enclosed by
strong walls, and they prepared to defend them-
"When the fire at the temple had abated, and
the groans of the dying had ceased, Titus and his
soldiers brought their idols and ensigns, and set
them up within the blackened walls of the holy
house. There Solomon once spread out his hands
to the Holy One, whose presence so filled the place
that no one could stand before it. Now these im-
pious pagans set up their golden eagles there, and
THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. 173
offered sacrifices and burn incense before them, with
shoutings and exultant joy.
" The Jews saw from the distance this abomina-
tion standing where it should not, and exclaimed in
the bitterness of their souls, '0 God, the heathen
are come into thine inheritance. Thy holy temple
have they defiled ; they have laid Jerusalem on
heaps ! The dead bodies of thy servants have they
given to be meat unto the fowls of the heaven, the
flesh of thy saints unto the beasts of the earth.
Their blood have they shed like water round about
Jerusalem, and there was none to bury them. How
long, Lord ? Wilt thou be angry for ever ? Help
us, God of our salvation, for the glory of thy
name, and deliver us. 7 " Psalm 97.
"It seems very hard,' 7 said Charles, "that they
were left to such misery."
"It was sad, truly, 77 replied Mr Sherman; " but
they had despised God 7 s mercies, and would listen
to no reproof ; and now, when their destruction
came as a whirlwind, they called, but God did not
174 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
answer. It is no wonder that in view of all these
calamities, Christ wept over the city, and exclaimed,
' Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the
prophets and stonest them which are sent unto thee,
how often would I have gathered thy children to-
gether even as a hen gathereth her chickens under
her wings, and ye would not. Behold your house is
left unto you desolate. 7 "
THE PALL OP JEEUSALEM.
all of Jerusalem
" About five days after the burning of the temple/ 7
said Mr. Sherman, "it was discovered that a com-
pany of priests and a boy were hidden in some secret
place among the ruins, and were starving and dying
THE FALL OF JE Pi U SALEM.
with thirst. At length the boy appeared with a dish
in his hand, and begged for water. The Romans, sor-
ry for his youth and wretchedness, told him to come
and drink; but he would not venture till they gave
the promise that his life should be spared. They
thought he was going to give himself up, and assured
him that he should not be hurt. So he ventured,
drank all he wanted, then filled his cup, and ran
with all his might back to the priests. The soldiers
called, and ran after him, and said he had broken
his agreement, but he insisted that he had made
no promises, and made his escape. After a while
these priests came out, and begged for their lives ;
but the Romans intimated that as the temple was
burned, there was nothing further for them to do,
and so they were all slain."
"Simon and John, began to feel that they were
in a bad condition, and proposed a meeting between
themselves and Titus. The bridge over the valley
which they had crossed was designated as the place
of conference, and at the appointed time Titus, with
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
an interpreter and part of his army, appeared at
one end, while Simon and the Jews stood at the
other. Titus commenced the parley, and after call-
ing them many hard names, proposed that they
should lay down their arms and submit uncondition-
ally. The Jews replied that they were bound by
an oath never to do so ; but said if he would allow
it, they would take their wives and children, and go
off into the wilderness, and leave the city to him.
Titus scorned this proposition with great indigna-
tion, and said they should not dictate terms to him,
and that after that, no mercy would be shown to
any one. Thus ended the meeting.
''Titus gave orders to his soldiers to burn down
that part of the city which they had conquered ; and
the next clay they went about their dreadful work.
The council-house, a large and beautiful building
was fired, then a magnificent palace ; the houses
which were filled with dead bodies were burnt
clown ; then those in the lanes and by-streets ; and
finally not one remained ; all were in ashes. The
THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
soldiers searched, expecting to find many valuables ;
but the Jews had carried them all across to Mount
Zion ; and when every thing was going to ruin
around them, these Jews were busy burying their
riches, or hiding them in the caves. Simon had fore-
thought enough to take all the food he could spare,
and secrete it in a cave, where he thought he him-
self might possibly have to hide.
" Josephus was sent again to talk to the Jews,
and beg of them to yield, that Titus might not be
compelled to destroy the whole city. But they
mocked him, and told him 1 they were bound by an
oath which they would never break, and dishonor
themselves as he had done.'
4 'Simon and John gave orders to kill any body
found attempting to escape to the Eomans ; and
hundreds were slain daily, being too weak to make
much resistance ; and this part of the city was as
full of the dead as the other had been.
" Titus now began to build up banks against the
wall of Mount Zion ; but it was a month before he fair-
THE FALL OE JEEUSALEM. 179
ly commenced to work his engines. The Jews were
too weak and discouraged to make much resistance,
and he was not long in breaking through. There was
now no holy house towards which to look, and pray for
deliverance ; and when the wall fell a panic ensued,
and every body ran for a place of safety. Simon took
with him stonecutters and their tools, and went
down into his cave with the hope of eventually dig-
ging through, and coming up on the outside of the
Roman wall. But after many days of hard labor,
they gave up, and sat quietly in their hiding-place.
Titus marched in and took possession of that part of
the city ; but when he saw the strong towers so per-
fectly made, he said 'if the Jews had defended them,
no machinery or power of man could ever have
taken them. 7 Titus threw open all the prison doors
and set at liberty all that were bound. 77
" Do you suppose, 77 asked Charles, " that Jose-
phus found his father, and mother, and children ? 77
"We hear nothing more of them, 77 replied Mr.
Sherman, "and it is probable that they all perished
180 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
in the famine. The Romans were quite tired of
killing people, and Titus told them they might spare
all that were not in arms. As they went on in their
bloody work, they killed the aged and infirm, but
all who they thought might be useful to them in any
way, they drove within the standing walls of the
temple area, and shut them up. Then a kind of
mock trial was had, and all who were suspected of
having belonged to the seditious faction were killed
outright. Others were offered food ; but it was
probably so contaminated with idolatry, or blood,
that it was refused, and eleven thousand perished
there by starvation. But of the young men of the
city he chose out the tallest and most beautiful and
reserved them to exhibit hereafter in his triumphs.
" God had threatened that if the Jews were dis-
obedient, they should be sent again into Egypt, and
sold for bondmen and bondwomen, till none should
be found to buy them. Deut. 28:68. And now
Titus, without any intention of carrying out God s
plans, and probably knowing nothing of them,
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
ordered multitudes of these poor creatures to be
bound and sent to Egypt to work in the mines.
Josephus says that ninety-seven thousand persons
were carried off into captivity ; many of them doubt-
less J ews from other towns in Judea. Titus also sent
a great many as presents to the provinces, that they
might be exhibited at the theatres and destroyed
by wild beasts for the amusement of the beholders.
" John of Gischala was discovered, and as he was
brought before Titus, begged hard for mercy. He
was condemned to prison for life, which under their
barbarous treatment would soon end. Much search
was made for Simon, but he could nowhere be found.
The whole city remaining was now burned down, and
all the walls demolished, excepting a part of the
western portion, which they saved for the camp they
were to leave there. Three of those strong tow^ers
were also left, to show what the Romans had had to
contend against. But the temple walls and all others
were so utterly destroyed, that Josephus says a
stranger would not have known that the place had
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
ever been inhabited. It is said that Titus commanded
that the ground where the temple stood should be
ploughed as a field ; which also fulfilled prophecy."
" Christ's words, that 'not one stone should be
left upon another/ must have been proven true by
this time," said Charles.
"Yes, literally true," replied his father; "but
Titus did not reach the deep foundations, which
are there to this day, and have been examined by
many modern travellers. Those stones are mar-
" The war was now at an end, and Titus ordered
a high tribunal or platform to be built at the place
where his camp had stood. When it was finished,
he and his commanders ascended it, and when the
army had gathered around, he delivered them a
long speech, in which he praised them for their gal-
lantry and courage. Then the names of those who
had particularly distinguished themselves by per-
forming great exploits during the siege, were read,
and upon these he bestowed crowns of gold, and
THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
golden ornaments for their necks, and spears of
gold, and ensigns made of silver ; and he also raised
all these to higher ranks. To others he distributed
plentifully from the spoils, such as silver, and gold,
"Titus came down amidst great acclamations,
and then sacrificed a vast number of oxen, which
stood ready at the altar they had built ; after which
the soldiers feasted upon the flesh.
4 4 The army was then disunited, and the legions
were sent to the cities they had formerly inhabited.
Titus took thousands of his captives, and vast quan-
tities of the spoil he had secured, and went with
part of his army to Csesarea. It was now fall, and
he designed to remain through the winter in the
country, and then return to Rome.' 7
"Father, they haven't found Simon yet, 77 said
Jennie ; " and I think he will make his escape. 77
"I don't know how he can,' 7 replied Mr. Sher-
man, "for the soldiers are there on the ground.
Titus, of course, could not sit idly down without
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
excitement ; and after lie had exhausted all the
amusements in Csesarea, he concluded to go to Cass-
area Philippi, which lay more than sixty miles off,
in the northeastern part of the country. Every-
body, of course, among his own countrymen, as well
as many others, flattered and cheered him ; multi-
tudes turned out to see him wherever he went ; and
now he took a great number of the captives and
many soldiers, and after a weary, sad march for the
poor Jews, arrived at that city, and commenced his
shows. In a large enclosure, where hundreds of
people occupied elevated seats, wild and hungry
animals were brought, and many of these captives
were thrown to them. They fought for their lives
until they sank bleeding upon the ground, and were
torn to pieces and devoured by the ferocious beasts.
This afforded great amusement to the spectators.
And when they tired of this, or perhaps the animals
were no longer hungry, Titu^ compelled the Jews
to fight and destroy each other. 77
"What barbarity!" exclaimed Charles.
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
While Titus was there, 77 said Mr. Sherman,
"he received word from Jerusalem that Simon had
I been found, and the soldiers wished to know what
should be done with him. Titus sent word that he
would take him to Rome, and on his day of triumph
take his life.' 7
"How did they discover him? 77 asked Charles.
" He and his men w T ere starved out, 77 replied Mr.
Sherman; "for thev had measured out their food
from the first. The soldiers were stationed near
the cave where he was hid, and it w r as a great ques-
tion with Simon how to make his escape. At length,
when there was nothing more to eat, he dressed him-
self in white, and throwing a purple robe over his
shoulders, suddenly rose to the surface. He thought
the guard would be frightened at seeing such an ap-
parition rising out of the ground ; but though they
were astonished, they did not run, and they soon
bound him, and made him tell who he was. This
led to the discovery of a great many others, and
much treasure. They found in these caves the bod-
186 THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
ies of as many as two thousand people, who had
either killed themselves or had died of hunger.
"Titus continued his festivities at the north,
and in one place celebrated his brother's birthday
by destroying, by fire, wild beasts, and fighting,
two thousand and five hundred Jews. He also went
to Berytus, a Roman city, now Beirut, to celebrate
his father's birthday. There he was at vast expense,
and had magnificent shows, as he called them, and
destroyed thousands of his captives.
"He travelled as far as the river Euphrates,
where the king of Parthia sent him a crown of gold,
which he accepted, and after feasting the messen-
gers, sent them back.
" It was now drawing near the time when Titus
must go to Rome, and he determined to go by land
to Egypt, and then sail across the Mediterranean
to Italy. On his way, he went to Jerusalem, and
looked with a sad heart upon its ruins. How changed
from what it was when he first saw it! Then it was
the 'joy of the whole earth. 7 Now it had no exist-
^THE FALL OF JEEUSALEM.
ence. Titus took with him those two legions which
he brought from Alexandria ; also Simon and John,
and seven hundred of the tallest and handsomest
young men of the Jews, and numberless other cap-
tives. He passed over the same ground that he
travelled when coming up, and on arriving at Alex-
andria, he left the two legions in their former quar-
ters, and soon after sailed for Rome.
"When he arrived, the greatest display was in
preparation for him. The Senate had met, and
ordered two pompous celebrations — one for Titus
and the other for Yespasian. But they finally
merged the two in one great and magnificent dis-
play. Yespasian met Titus and Domitian, in the
presence of the people, amid great rejoicings. The
whole city poured out and filled the road for a great
distance, leaving only a narrow way, through which
royalty might pass. Great numbers of soldiers
marched out before day to the temple of Isis, where
Yespasian and his sons were, who came out at the
break of day, dressed in royal purple robes, and
188 THE FALL OF JEKUSALEM.
crowned with laurel. All then moved off to the
place called 'Octavia's Walks, 7 where the Senate
and principal rulers and a large number of horse-
men had assembled.
"A high tribunal had been erected, on which
were ivory chairs. In these Vespasian and Titus
were seated, amid great cheering and rejoicings.
After a little Vespasian arose, and signalling to the
crowd to be silent, drew his robe nearly over his
head, and prayed to his idol gocls. When he fin-
ished, Titus went through the same ceremony. Then
Vespasian made a short speech, and afterwards the
whole crowd moved off to a certain place where
pompous shows were exhibited. Then they took
food, and offered sacrifices to the idols which stood
near. More beautiful robes and ornaments were
there put upon these royal personages ; and bear-
ing the golden candlestick, which had seven branches,
and the golden table, and the law of the Jews, which
was the Old Testament, and the other numerous
trophies they had taken from Jerusalem, they moved
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM 189
forward, followed by thousands of the captive Jews.
Simon had a rope around his neck, and was tor-
mented air the way. He was marching to his place
"In the procession were exhibited such vast
quantities of articles of gold and silver that they
seemed to the spectators like a flowing river. They
also had vast pieces of embroidery suspended, rep-
resenting the taking and burning of a city. There
were also transparent precious stones, some in crowns
of gold, others in bunches and large and elaborately
carved gods, and other representations; and these
were elevated so high above the heads of the crowd
that it was a wonder that anybody was able to keep
them from falling. Others displayed golden car-
"But of all the shows, those which Titus had
taken from the temple attracted the most attention.
A large company of men, with golden or ivory ima-
ges of victory in their hands, marched in front of
Vespasian and Titus ; and behind them, on a beau-
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
tiful horse, rode Domitian. When they arrived at
the temple of Jupiter the crowd halted, and all were
silent, waiting for the announcement that the rebel
general was beheaded. Simon was compelled then
to come forward to be slain ; after which the proc-
lamation was made that he was dead, and all that
vast crowd sent up shouts that made the earth ring
again. Sacrifices were again offered to their gods,
and the rest of the clay was spent in feastings and
"Some time after, Vespasian built a temple to
Peace. It was a splendid structure, for he had
great riches, and an abundance of every thing pre-
cious with which to beautify it. When finished, the
golden candlestick and the gold table and the book
of the Jewish law, with other trophies, were placed
in it. He also built a high triumphal arch for Titus,
and on it was a fine representation of these spoils,
some of which can be faintly traced even to this
day. The accompanying fac-simile from this arch
shows the sacred candlestick, trumpets, and table.
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
u So the old dispensation, with all its types and
shadows, passed away; prophecy was fulfilled; and
the new Christian dispensation, pointing ever up-
ward and onward to the new and heavenly J erusa-
lem, was fully introduced.
" Christ was the all and in all — the Lamb that
was slain from the foundation of the world — the
great High Priest who hath entered once for all into
the Holy of Holies above, and now ever liveth to
make intercession for all that come unto Grod through
THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
Jerusalem, my happy home,
Name ever dear to me !
When shall my labors have an end,
In joy, and peace, and thee ?
When shall'these eyes thy heaven-built walls
And pearly gates behold —
Thy bulwarks, with salvation strong,
And streets of shining gold ?
Oh, when, thou city of my God,
Shall I thy courts ascend,
Where congregations ne'er break up,
And Sabbaths have no end ?
There happier bowers than Eden bloom,
Nor sin nor sorrow know :
Blessed seats ! through rude and stormy seas
I onward press to you.
Jerusalem, my happy home,
My soul still pants for thee.
Then shall my labors have an end,
When I thy joys shall see.